Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Compulsive sexual behavior to avoid memories of combat Research Paper

Compulsive sexual behavior to avoid memories of combat - Research Paper Example The case study is based on Jim, a soldier who served Marine combat duty in Iraq. He is twenty three years old and a Caucasian male. He is married and has a son. Howard (2007) is part of a team that provided a comprehensive treatment for Jim’s addiction and emotional problems. He collected qualitative data from Jim through counseling sessions. Findings showed that combat experience produced traumatic experiences for Jim, which resulted to his emotional and relationship problems. At the same time, Jim went through problems at home, which reinforced his need to escape his pain. Howard (2007) stressed that Jim self-medicated through the use of pornography, which became a sexually compulsive behavior. His sex addiction became a source of immediate temporary happiness that numbed him to pain. Howard (2007) also described the addiction cycle. Then, he recommended measures that can deal with the diverse components of addiction. He emphasized the importance of treating trauma, not just the addiction, through a systemic approach, which includes the wife/partner in the healing process. Howard (2007) concluded that sexually compulsive behavior can be an escape route for other traumatic experiences, such as rape and events of terrorism. ... The military sampling includes soldiers who are deployed or have come from deployment. Anderson (2010) explained how technology assisted the ease of developing pornography addiction. He interviewed Navy Lt. Michael Howard, a licensed therapist and chaplain, who has a specialty in sex addiction. Howard stated that twenty percent is a conservative estimation for soldiers who are addicted to porn. Anderson (2010) described the flourishing industry of Porn 2.0, as well as the practice of using social networking sites and â€Å"sexting† as means of porn addictions. Access to technology made porn addiction a convenient form of instant pleasure. Porn, as a kind of sex addiction, is similar to other forms of addiction, where it titillates the pleasure centers of the brain. Anderson (2010) talked to Robert Weiss, director of the Sexual Recovery Institute in Los Angeles, who described what happens to the brain while consuming pornography. Watching porn releases dopamine, a neurotransmit ter that activates pleasure centers and blocks pain sources in the brain. Weiss added that masturbation increases dopamine levels and reinforces porn addiction. Porn addiction has numerous psychological and social effects. Anderson (2010) interviewed soldiers, who were fired because of storing child pornography images in their computers or accessing child porn websites. Soldiers also complained of how porn addiction affected their relationships and work performance. They admitted that porn became a way of dealing with their stress. The wives of soldiers addicted to porn expressed distress too because they felt betrayed when they learned of the porn addiction of their spouses. These interviews assert the individual, family, and organizational consequences

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Motivation Of Employees In The Hotel Industry Tourism Essay

Motivation Of Employees In The Hotel Industry Tourism Essay The last few decades have been characterised by a radical change in management perceptions about the importance of the work force in achievement of strategic objectives of business organisations. Management experts agree that in situations where competitors have similar financial resources and organisational infrastructures, competitive edge can be achieved only through well trained and intensely motivated employee forces. The hotel industry has grown remarkably in the last two decades. With the industry expanding exponentially, capacity builds ups in business and tourism centres have created enormous competition in all its segments. Whilst hotel managers strive to provide good physical facilities to their clients, it is widely accepted that excellence in service quality is best achieved through the efforts of employees to meet customer needs. Motivating employees is thus seen to be a critical task of hotel managers. The dissertation project aims to examine the importance of motivating employees in the hotel industry for the achievement of competitive advantage and the best possible ways and means of doing so. The last few decades, especially the period that commenced from the 1970s, have been characterised by radical changes in management perceptions about the importance of the work force in achieving the strategic objectives of business organisations.  [1]   Whilst traditional management theory treated workers, along with capital, land and machinery, as just one of the four important inputs of business enterprises, current management thought and practice, influenced on one hand by the opinions of experts like Drucker, Porter, Maslow and McGregor, and on the other by dramatically altered business conditions, perceive employees to be critical to organisational success and growth.  [2]   Contemporary developments like globalisation, economic liberalisation, the deconstruction of trade and physical barriers, technological advances, the spread of the internet, instantaneous communication technology, cheaper travel costs and the emergence of China and India as economic power houses have made the world intensely competitive and diminished the superiority of Western business organisations.  [3]  Management experts agree that in economic scenarios where competitors have the same sort of financial resources and organisational infrastructures, competitive edge is mainly achieved through well trained and intensely motivated employee forces.  [4]   The hotel industry has grown remarkably in the last two decades. Globalisation along with greater discretionary incomes in the populations of advanced and developing countries, cheaper travel, open borders and the opening of numerous business and tourists destinations have led to substantial increases in business travel and domestic and international tourism and created enormous opportunities for hotels. Aims and Objectives With the hotel industry expanding exponentially, capacity builds ups in business and tourism centres have created enormous competition in all sectors of the hotel industry.  [5]  Being service oriented in nature, hotels work towards achievement of service quality and improvement of customer satisfaction for achievement of competitive advantage.  [6]   Whilst hotel ownerships strive to provide good physical facilities to their clients, it is widely accepted that excellence in service quality is best achieved through the efforts of employees to meet customer needs  [7]  Motivating employees is thus seen to be a critical task of hotel managements.  [8]   This proposal aims to investigate the contribution of employees in achievement of profitability and competitive advantage in the hotel industry, the importance of motivation in improving employee performance, and the role of managers in motivating employees to improve their performance and commitment. Its objectives are elaborated as follows: To examine the ways and means in which employees can add to the service quality, efficiency, profitability and competitive advantage of the hotel industry. To examine the impact of motivation on the performance of hotel employees. To examine and assess the various ways of motivating employees. To examine the roles of managers in motivating hotel employees. 2. Literature Review Human resource management theory has changed radically over the past few decades. Whilst traditional HR theory was influenced and shaped by scientific management principles embodied in the approaches of Henry Ford and Fredrick Taylor for improvement of worker productivity, the post Second World War period saw the emergence of behavioural experts and psychologists like Maslow, McGregor, Herzberg and Vroom, who discarded Fordist and Taylorist principles and emphasised that worker performance could be much better enhanced by meeting the various needs of workers, training and developing them and empowering them to do their work to the best of their ability.  [9]   Experts like Maslow and Herzberg stress that worker motivation is critical to worker performance and organisational managements need to motivate members of their work force in carefully thought out, well planned and deliberately implemented ways. Maslowà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s theory of needs, McGregorà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s exposition of theory X and theory Y, Herzbergà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s detailing of hygiene and motivating factors, and Vroomà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s work on motivating employees deal with the various needs of workers and how they can best be motivated by organisational managements.  [10]   Extant HR theory also places great stress on the need of managers to know methods of motivation and use them appropriately in the work place.  [11]  The evolution of human resources as a management discipline has been characterised by numerous academic and research work on the best possible methods of motivating employees.  [12]   Employees are seen as key inputs in the hotel industry and most well known hotel chains like The Marriot, The Mandarin Orient and The Ritz Carlton are known to have very carefully thought out and well implemented employee performance improvement programmes.  [13]  Motivation plays a key role in such programmes and is a key responsibility of hotel managers.  [14]   The Ritz Carlton, the only two time winner of the famous Malcolm Baldridge awards for quality, is known to have an excellent employee training, development and motivation programme.  [15]  Employees at the Ritz Carlton are motivated through a complex system of policies and procedures that deal with remuneration, training, involvement, responsibility allocation, employee respect and empowerment.  [16]   Employee motivation and the responsibilities of managers in motivating employees are key areas of focus in hotel management theory.  [17]   3. Research Methodology Research Hypotheses The aims and objectives of the project, along with the information obtained during the course of review of available literature, lead to the following research hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Employees are critical for the achievement of service quality, profitability and competitive advantage in the hotel industry Hypothesis 2: Employee motivation leads to improvement in employee performance Hypothesis 3: Managers can motivate hotel employees in various ways. Research Methods The choice and adoption of appropriate research methods for projects are essentially decided by the nature of the project and the resources available with the researcher.  [18]  With there being two basic methods of social research, namely the quantitative and qualitative approaches, the choice of an appropriate method for this assignment will be shaped by the research hypotheses elaborated above.  [19]   The research hypotheses essentially deal with issues and questions that are how, why and what in nature, and are thus best tackled by use of interpretative qualitative methods, rather than through analysis of the results of number based quantitative surveys.  [20]   Information for the project will be obtained from primary and secondary sources.  [21]  Primary information sources are those that provide information directly from people and organisations who form the subject of research, whereas secondary information is obtained from sources created by people, (e.g. authors, researchers, or media publications), who are unconnected with the research subject.  [22]   It is proposed to use both primary and secondary sources for this research project.  [23]  Whilst substantial information from secondary sources on human resource management, motivational theory, service quality, managerial responsibility and the responsibilities and methods of managers for motivating employees is available in the public domain, primary information can be obtained through study of hotel websites and interviews of people associated with the research subject.  [24]  With the hospitality industry now a globally important industry, a number of academic publications and research studies are available on different aspects of hotel management.  [25]  The study of such sources will enable the researcher to obtain accurate and extensive information on the subject under study.  [26]   The methodology entails the collection of primary and secondary data from the sources elaborated earlier, the qualitative interpretation of obtained information, and its detailed analysis for the purpose of examining the validity of the hypothesis.  [27]   Ethics Care will be taken to ensure that all ethical requirements regarding the conduct of research projects are followed, especially with regard to protection of the rights and confidentiality of primary respondents. Adequate care will be taken to ensure that appropriate credit is given to all information sources.  [28]   Constraints and Limitations The study will be limited by the amount of primary and secondary information accessed by the researcher, as well as the amount of cooperation provided by the primary respondents from the hotel industry. It is envisaged that obtaining appointments with hotel managers may be a difficult task and could delay the gathering of information and data. The researcher plans to start taking appointments with managers in the hotel industry at the earliest in order to maintain the research schedule. 4. Timeline The research is expected to take six months to complete. The timeline of the project is provided below. Function Month 1 Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Month 5 Month 6 Determining of Secondary Information Sources * Study of Secondary Information Sources * * * Determination of Primary Information Sources * * Study of Primary Information Sources * Fixing of Appointments with Primary Respondents * * Conducting of Interviews * Collation of Secondary Information * Compilation of Literature Review * * Compilation of Primary Information * Collation of Data * Data Analysis and Interpretation * Preparation of Rough Draft of Dissertation * Discussion with Tutor * Preparation of Final Dissertation * Word Count: 1610 without Tables

Friday, October 25, 2019

Lost in translation Essay -- essays research papers

Lost In Translation â€Å"Lost In Translation† is one of those movies that seek to be something having something extra something that is more than a regular movie. Moreover, it does so effectively without being pretentious, all through the movie it does not seem like it is trying too hard to be something other than what is there. It is skillfully written, well directed and it boasts of a solid cast not very spectacular but full of good actors. Jointly, this eventually results in an enjoyable and interesting movie. The important thing is that it has a message to it. Bill Murray and Scarlett Johansson play two individuals lost in the new and unfamiliar surroundings, restlessly moving around a Tokyo hotel in the middle of the night, who fall into talk about their marriages, their pleasure and the significance of it all. What occurs between them is very deep they open their hearts to one another letting the other know about the feelings and problems they are having with their marriages. In my view, t hese conversations can in fact only be held with strangers. We all need to talk about metaphysics, but those who are close to us want information and details; outsiders let us function more loosely on a cosmic scale. Murray plays Bob Harris, an American movie star in Japan to make commercials for whiskey. His relationship with is wife is disjointed, they seem to be on a different wavelength, and they are sticking around because it is easier. A good example is when his wife asks over the p...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Briefly discuss why it was written

The chapter titled â€Å"THIS UNEXPECTED EVENT † : ANNIHILATION AT THE COWPENS was written to stress the strategic and consequential importance of the immemorial battle fought between the British and American armies at Cowpens in South Carolina in 1781.The American victors led by their Commander Daniel Morgan, used the most advanced and pioneer tactical strategies to counter the might of the British who had so far made victorious inroads into other parts of the world by using their time tested and advanced military strategies.The inspiration for using such a  strategy could have been taken from the double envelopment techniques used by Hannibal during the classic Battle at Cannae in 216 BC, whereby he 2 conclusively defeated the massive Roman army that was almost twice the size of his own. It is understood by many that the victory at Cowpens was due to a rare opportunity available to the American Commander and the presence of mind along with the trust imposed in him by his g enerals led to the landmark victory that had noteworthy consequences in setting the course for future events in American history. The battle at Cowpens was comparatively small in view of the other battlesof the time when the British struggled to establish their supremacy in America, but it proved that the so far considered to be unbeaten British Commander Tarleton was also vulnerable in the face of the new tactical strategies of the American infantry and cavalry. The results of the battle set the course for a reduction in the morale of the British army who were taken aback by the unimagined tactical techniques used by Morgan and his officers. The result of the battle was a confirmation that the Americans demonstrated proper use of battle techniques using the cavalry and infantry.The victory was indeed a landmark one and the remains of the battle ground and the remnants of the memoirs remain intact and preserved to this day to match the accounts of the actual battle field so as to re mind Americans of 3 the victory that paved the way and set course towards establishing their supremacy against the British. b. Writer’s Conclusion. What does the writer conclude about the period or event? The basis of forming conclusions about the Battle at Cowpens can be exhaustively had from the various vantage points set up and maintained at the actual battle site.On the strength of their location and description that is conclusively associated with the written accounts of the battle by several writers and the participants in the battle who were also commanders and rank holders in the cavalry and infantry, a feel of the actual thought process of Commander Morgan and his Officers can be experienced. The writer feels that indeed Commander Morgan was a pioneer in such battle strategy and displayed exemplary courage and leadership qualities to boost the morale of his people and to synchronize the timely availability of logistical support asand when required. His main line of d efense was based on tactical use of formations with an element of surprise and operational security. He used the militia very effectively by planning ahead and placing them at the right locations to counter enemy infringement. He established a skirmish line by effectively using advanced technology and light infantry that had so far 4 never been used in the 18th century. Although the British deployed their formations in a linear battlefield, there were psychological effects of fatigue that halted the initial signs of victory.Initially the British under the leadership of Tarleton, made victorious strides pushing back the Americans causing for some time discouragement amongst their ranks, but the British suddenly started to loose ground in the face of tactical moves by Morgan and his ranks. There had to be a fast retreat under immense pressure from the Americans leading to large number of casualties amongst the British. However in this context the battle is remembered due to its learni ng lessons by way of the great sense of battle discipline displayed amongst the soldiers, close combat techniques and the collection andassessment of battlefield information on the part of the British. The Battle at Cowpen paved the way for the future use of creating psychological impact as was done effectively when the retreating Americans under the orders of their Commander Howard took an about turn and indiscriminately fired at the Britishers who were unaware of such a move and which turned the table against them. In this context, Howard acted under instructions from Morgan as part of the plan and the effect of such fire 5 power was decisively in favor of the Americans. Consequently, anothernoteworthy conclusion of this event is that the battle is a perfect laboratory example for analysis of psychological factor working in war and how it can be effectively used against the enemy. Evidence Supporting the Conclusion. Incorporate evidence offered by the writer to support the chapter . Why should I believe this person? The Battle at Cowpen was a battle that set new trends and patterns of tactical strategies to counter enemy supremacy, which is aptly proved by the course of events that followed 1781 to set new landmarks in American history. Thechapter gives a detailed account of the battle, the course of events and the intricacies that changed the initial victorious trend of the British on the battlefield. All that is written in the chapter about the battle is supported by a real existence of the actual battle site and the different stages of the battle being earmarked by Vantage Points 1 to 12, which aptly prove that the site is there and that the battle did take place in 1781. The vantage points give an account of the different stages of the battle where most of the action happened and the visitor is made to have a taste and gut feeling of the battleactually happening before him, as the entire site can be viewed and observed 6 from one spot. So there is full ev idence in support of the chapter by way of the actual existence of the battle site that is maintained to this day. References Scott Withrow, Park Ranger, The Battle of Cowpen, may 2005, http://www. nps. gov/archive/cowp/batlcowp. htm The Battle of Cowpens 1781, http://www. britishbattles. com/battle-cowpens. htm John Buchanan, The American Revolution in the Carolinas, http://www. theamericanrevolution. org/battles/bat_cowp. asp

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Genetic Modified Food

Introduction Food is any material consumed to provide nutritional support for the body which it is probably from plant or animal that holds important nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, or minerals (Shah, 2006). Despite the importance of the food but it will be harmful in human health if it was genetically modified. So, genetically modified Food, is food that has been well genetically altered.Furthermore, they are foods products from genetically modified organisms that have had their DNA changed through genetic engineering which the DNA is the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that transmits the genetic orders for making living organisms. So, Genetic engineering can be completed with plants and animals like for example, the most mutual modified food that resulting from plants are soybean, canola, cotton seed oil and corn (Shah, 2006).In addition, the benefits of genetically engineered food such as food will be tastier, more nutritious food, the plants and animal s grow faster, some medicinal foods that could be used as vaccines and decreased use of pesticides (Shah, 2006). This assignment will shed the light on the history of GMF, the advantages and disadvantages, discussing the role of the food industry in the marketing of the GMF and perform the opinions of government and food companies about GMF. To define more genetically modified food, which it is food that produced by changing the DNA of an organism, which probably done with a plant that make food.It begins by inserting a gene in organism's genome to create new characteristics (Organization, 2012). Moreover, these characteristics contain a confrontation to wildflowers, pests or herbicides, growth rate will increase faster and improved nutrients. Moreover, people can produce hereditarily modified food by altering the amount of the genes in an organism by simply adjusting the genes. Furthermore, the history of genetically modified food started since scientists discovered that DNA can tr ansmit between organisms in 1946.The first product of genetically modified food crop was a tomato created by California Company in the early1990s which they called it Flavr Savr tomato that it have been submitted to the US food and drug administration in 1992 (Organization, 2012). However the aspect of GM food has received much criticism after marketable introduction of these in the form of making them accessible to the general public. The food industry has grown and stabilized strongly, because of the increasing demand of the population for food resources (Nataliya Moglina, 2010).To keep up with it, the food providing companies or farmers had to adjust in their production plans, one of the methods besides good marketing, was to genetically modify the crops of plants and the meat sources (Nataliya Moglina, 2010). Over the past decade, consumers have showed a high level of anxiety about the safety of the food source, which consumers asked for assurances that food is free from materia ls such as pesticides, hormones and antibiotics. Moreover, some consumers accepted on the benefits of chemicals in the food production that resulted in cosmetically perfect fruits and vegetables at low price.It has been seen in the previous researches that the worldwide consumers respond negatively towards food products made from genetically modified food which they try to avoid taking and consuming GMF because of the risks and negative effects on the human health. Some studies in US showed a higher acceptance from consumers on biotechnology and genetically modified food than other countries. Furthermore, China, India, Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia are the main countries are working on modified crops in Asia.Nevertheless, in developing countries only little acceptance have been showed toward genetically modified food. In my opinion, most of the consumers they mostly refuse using genetically modified food because of the risks on their health such as liver cancer, allergies, hea rt diseases, and colon cancer and it may damage nerves system. However, the marketing is promoting the product and attract people to buy these products even if they are harmful on their health also it help them to achieve more sales.Recently, genetic modified food is being consumed in a big amount to provide people's needs of food according to the increasing numbers of the population, which it produces cheap, safe and nutritious foods. The advantages and disadvantages of GMF caused diverse opinions and arguments in different countries (Amin, 2011). So the advantages of GM foods such as, good quality of food, offer inexpensive and nutritious food like carrots with more antioxidants, provide food with a greater shelf life like tomatoes hat taste better and last longer, produce food with medicinal benefits for instance bananas with bacterial or rotavirus antigens, and produce crops that require less chemical application, such as herbicide resistant canola. Despite the many advantages t o genetically modified food there are also several disadvantages. The main impact is that genetically modified foods are original and it is difficult to know all the coming effects it might be on human health and environment (Amin, 2011).Another disadvantage is the possible impact it could have to human health, like for example some of new genes that are inserted into food can be resilient to specific antibiotics, so when we eat these products the effectiveness of antibiotics might be reduced. Also new allergens could be suddenly created and well-known allergens might be transmitted to new foods, for instance when the genetic factor of the peanuts was taken and put in a tomato so people that are allergic to peanuts could be allergic also to tomato (Amin, 2011).Genetically modified food endures a debatable subject which some experts trust that the future of GM crops is at a crossroad (Biggs, 2007). Some genetic modification of food has helped producers more than consumers because it gives more products faster which can be sold to the consumers and most of the consumers cannot accept to get specific nutrients from genetically modified food (Biggs, 2007). So, the future of GM foods seems to depend on purpose of issues linked to cross-pollination and change of existing crops, the viability of small farms, consumer benefits, and other worries (Biggs, 2007).After the appearance of genetically modified food, some people were against of using these products according to the risks on their health which the other side of people was with using these products because of the advantages (Biggs, 2007). This issue leaded to debates and different arguments such as, the government was against of using these products so it has decided to introduce classification of genetically modified food to protect consumers from misuses of producers and providers of biotechnology products ( council, 2007) .Also it will allow for the consumers to choose between genetically modified or non-Gen etically modified food. So the labeling polices depend on the supposition that the industry is incapable or unwilling to recognize the risks that inherited in their GMF products (council, 2007). Thus, the government gets involved in the market with obligatory labeling policies to ensure consumer protection from possible health and safety risks related with depletion of GM food.Moreover, environmental activities, religious administrations, professional associations and other scientists have worries about GM food so it seems that everybody has a strong view which most worries of GM food separated into environmental dangers, human health risks and economic concerns (Herbert, 2005). From my side am impartial, I command and approve with some of the advantages that GMF have, like feeding the hungry mass of people and enriching the world economy by constantly providing the food supply to sell and buy.On the other hand I find the cons are more harmful and despicable, the gene engineering of an organisms is harmful to the human body in an indirect way, no proven studies but some rare cases brings the big question. Conclusion In conclusion, hereditarily modified food they are food that provided by crops and their genetic has been changed to develop their agricultural qualities. As I have mentioned about the positive and negative impact such as the grow rate of the plants will be faster some medicinal foods that could be used as vaccines and decreased use of pesticides.However, the disadvantages mostly effects on people's health and cause disease due to misusing of herbicides on the crops. So in my opinion GMF has the potential to solve several of the world's hunger and starvation problems and to protect the environment from the over using of chemical pesticides and herbicides and GMF should be a good solution for the world's increasing population because it reached six billion and it might double in the coming 50 years and according to growing population many people wil l die and mare children will be suffer starvation because of food shortage.References Amin, L. (2011, September 29). Risks and benefits of genetically modified food. pp. 1-3. Association, N. S. (2007, March 6). Genetically Modified Crops . pp. 4-5. Biggs, A. (2007). Biology . New York: National Geographic . Chapman, J. (2006, December 2). History of genetically modified food. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Revisions of Coopers Model Essays

Revisions of Coopers Model Essays Revisions of Coopers Model Essay Revisions of Coopers Model Essay Over the years, several revisions have been made to Coopers original model. These are; Cooper and Baglioni (1988), and Robertson, Cooper and Williams (1990). The home/work interface aspect of the model was originally part of the individual differences section, but in 1988, this was incorporated as a sixth source of stress. The reason behind this was the increasing recognition that demands and conflicts from work could act as potential sources of stress at home and could also be transferred and influence work-related well-being. Also, in 1990, Robertson et al introduced coping strategies into the model as another aspect of individual differences. Although there are several features of the work environment, which have been associated with stress, Cooper and Marshall (1976) developed one of the earliest classifications which is still widely used today (Newell 1995). Criticisms Claire Harris (1998) criticizes Coopers model as describing a model of organizational stress rather than occupational stress. She argued that it was vague in relation to particular types of job-related stress. This is evident from the sources of stress, with only those intrinsic to job being occupational stresses and the rest being generic to organizations rather than occupations. Several researchers including Cooper have noticed this problem and have used the measurement of stressors for the particular occupation under study. Cooper and Bramwell (1992) for example, assessed mental health satisfaction and sickness absence from looking at a group of managers and shop floor workers. Another criticism with this model is its simplistic left to right characterization of the stress process. In Lazarus Folkmans (1986) transactional model of stress, the extent to which a stressor in the environment results in strain outcomes depends on the interaction between the individual and their environment. The model also includes feedback loops which are not accounted for in Coopers model. Coopers model has also been criticized because it fails to show how individual differences relate to other parts of the model. Coopers model fails to account for organizational characteristics as moderators of the stressor strain relationship and does not indicate whether coping and personality have direct influences on stress outcomes or if they are combined to have an interactive influence. Although Cooper has incorporated individual differences in the model, further evidence is required to establish whether or not these differences have a direct effect or moderate strain outcomes. In addition to these criticisms, Coopers model does not account for other well known researched individual differences such as neuroticism (relating to well-being) and less researched factors such as extroversion and competence (Warr 1987). Conclusions Coopers 1986 model of work-related stress describes the main features of an individuals work and also of his/her home environment. He describes these in the Model of Stress at Work.  Although Coopers model is simplistic, it does give a general overview of how stress can influence an individuals relationships at work and at home.  It could be argued that Coopers model only concentrates on organizational stressors i.e. organizational structure, relationships at work, or career development. That being said, he mentions the feature of intrinsic to job, which is in fact related to occupational stress. Coopers model is still widely use today in the field of occupational psychology, but further revisions need to be made which describe the individuals coping strategies and personality, as they play a major role in the workplace with regards to a persons health. Further research also needs to be conducted on existing data and then it needs to be analysed directly with the H.S.E. References i)Brown et al 1999 Police Stress. ii)Claire Harris Msc Thesis (1998). iii)Daniels et al 2002 Stress Risk Report. iv)Jordan et al 2003 Practice stress in management. v)Parkes and Sparkes 1998 Organisational Stress Interventions.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Communication Essays - Biology Of Gender, Gender Studies

Communication Essays - Biology Of Gender, Gender Studies Communication communication is the means by which ideas and information are spread from person to person. People use communication to express feelings, emotions, opinions and values, to learn and teach, and to improve their status. Communication is therefore vital to human interaction whether between parents and children, bosses and employees or even husband and wife. The diversity and characteristics of those involved in any interaction can thus affect communication. Taking account of any diversity in interaction rather than assuming uniformity is important to achieving effective communication. Good communication is difficult to master and can be a major source of strife in any situation or business. Gaps in communication arise when the intended message is not transmitted or the message is misunderstood. The resultant miscommunication is mainly due to the different styles of communication amongst people. In order to understand the differences of communications patterns we should begin by considering the different elements of the communication process between the sender of the information and receiver. In any form of communication, the sender has a message to transmit that becomes encoded. The receiver obtains this encoded message via some medium or channel e.g. verbal, nonverbal or written, which is then decoded and translated (as shown in the following diagram). In order for the communication process to work both the sender and the receiver must understand the codes. As an example consider the encrypted messages that were sent during World War II. In order for the receiver to understand the message, knowledge of the code was important. We can even consider the situation of an English speaker in Japan. For effective communication either one or both parties should be able to understand and communicate in the language of the other. Good and effective communication can therefore be affected by many things including the situation, time, culture, and gender. The assertion that gender affects communication in different ways has been accepted by a large part of the population today. Gender differences in communication may pose problems in interpersonal interactions leading to intolerance, resentment, stress and decreased productivity. This is extremely critical in business organizations but even moreso in your everyday world and therefore an examination of these differences in the first step to understanding the issues involved and moving towards better communication. In any study of communication, there is variability in what is meant by "communication". Some individuals may consider only the verbal attributes whereas yet others will consider nonverbal interactions and the smart will focus on both. Additionally research studies have focused either on both the microscopic and the macroscopic levels of communication. The microscopic level deals with performance or perception of verbal and nonverbal behavior and the macroscopic assesses behavior on a global level (Canary & Dindia, 1992). In this discussion, both verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication will be considered. Gender communication Many people use the words gender and sex interchangeably, however these words do not mean the same thing. The word sex refers to the genetic and biological status of being male or female, while gender refers to the psychological and social manifestations of being male or female, i.e. the socially defined, learned, constructed accoutrements of sex, such as hairstyle, dress, nonverbal mannerisms, and interests (Lippa, 2002). Gender therefore focuses on the social construct regarding the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex. It concentrates on the roles and responsibilities, expectations, and aptitude of men and women that are learned, and modified as a result of the interaction of culture, society and environment. There are two views regarding gender the essentialist and the social constructionist views (Robb, 2004). The essentialist view gender as that with which we were born, being part of our genetic make-up. The male and female roles are therefore distinct identities and they shape behavior. However, this view might be somewhat limited since it does not account for the masculine and feminine attributes inherent in people. The social constructionist upholds the idea that psychological conditioning early in life leads to who we are and become as a result of the social interactions. Therefore in this view gender is shaped by society, culture and time. What then is gender communication? Several have used the term to signify the differences in communication

Sunday, October 20, 2019

SAT Essay Prompts The Complete List

SAT Essay Prompts The Complete List SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips On every SAT Essay, you'll have to read an argument meant to persuade a broad audience and discuss how well the author argues his or her point. The passage you'll have to read will change from test to test, but you'll always need to analyze the author's argument and write a coherent and organized essay explaining this analysis. In this article, we've compiled a list of the 14 real SAT essay prompts that the College Board has released (either in The Official SAT Study Guide or separately online) for the new SAT. This is the most comprehensive set of new SAT essay prompts online today. At the end of this article, we'll also guide you through how to get the most out of these prompts and link to our expert resources on acing the SAT essay. I'll discuss how the SAT essay prompts are valuable not just because they give you a chance to write a practice essay, but because of what they reveal about the essay task itself. Overview SAT essay prompts always keep to the same basic format. Not only is the prompt format consistent from test to test, but what you're actually asked to do (discuss how an author builds an argument) also remains the same across different test administrations. The College Board's predictability with SAT essay helps students focus on preparing for the actual analytical task, rather than having to think up stuff on their feet. Every time, before the passage, you'll see the following: As you read the passage below, consider how [the author] uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims. reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. And after the passage, you'll see this: "Write an essay in which you explain how [the author] builds an argument to persuade [her/his] audience that [whatever the author is trying to argue for]. In your essay, analyze how [the author] uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with [the author]'s claims, but rather explain how [the author] builds an argument to persuade [her/his] audience." Now that you know the format, let's look at the SAT essay prompts list. 14 Official SAT Essay Prompts The College Board has released a limited number of prompts to help students prep for the essay. We've gathered them for you here, all in one place. We'll be sure to update this article as more prompts are released for practice and/or as more tests are released. SPOILER ALERT: Since these are the only essay prompts that have been released so far, you may want to be cautious about spoiling them for yourself, particularly if you are planning on taking practice tests under real conditions. This is why I've organized the prompts by the 10 that are in the practice tests (so you can avoid them if need be), the ones that are available online as sample prompts, and the ones that are in the text of the Official SAT Study Guide (Redesigned SAT), all online for free. Practice Test Prompts These 10 prompts are taken from the practice tests that the College Board has released. Practice Test 1: "Write an essay in which you explain how Jimmy Carter builds an argument to persuade his audience that the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge should not be developed for industry." Practice Test 2: "Write an essay in which you explain how Martin Luther King Jr. builds an argument to persuade his audience that American involvement in the Vietnam War is unjust." Practice Test 3: "Write an essay in which you explain how Eliana Dockterman builds an argument to persuade her audience that there are benefits to early exposure to technology." Practice Test 4: "Write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved." Practice Test 5: "Write an essay in which you explain how Eric Klinenberg builds an argument to persuade his audience that Americans need to greatly reduce their reliance on air-conditioning." Practice Test 6: "Write an essay in which you explain how Christopher Hitchens builds an argument to persuade his audience that the original Parthenon sculptures should be returned to Greece." Practice Test 7: "Write an essay in which you explain how Zadie Smith builds an argument to persuade her audience that public libraries are important and should remain open" Practice Test 8: "Write an essay in which you explain how Bobby Braun builds an argument to persuade his audience that the US government must continue to invest in NASA." Practice Test 9: "Write an essay in which you explain how Todd Davidson builds an argument to persuade his audience that the US government must continue to fund national parks." Practice Test 10: "Write an essay in which you explain how Richard Schiffman builds an argument to persuade his audience that Americans need to work fewer hours." Special note: The prompt for Practice Test 4 also appears on the College Board's site with real sample essays written in response. If you've written a practice essay for practice test 4 and want to see what essays of different score levels look like for that particular prompt, you can go there and look at eight real student essays. within darkness by jason jenkins, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Resized from original. Free Online Practice This prompt comes from the College Board website. "Write an essay in which you explain how Dana Gioia builds an argument to persuade his audience that the decline of reading in America will have a negative effect on society." This prompt comes from Khan Academy, where it is listed as an alternate essay prompt to go along with Practice Test 2: "Write an essay in which you explain how Leo W. Gerard builds an argument to persuade his audience that American colleges and universities should be affordable for all students." The Official SAT Study Guide 2020 The Official SAT Study Guide (editions published in 2015 and later available online for free) contains all 10 of the previously mentioned practice tests at the end of the book. In the section about the new SAT essay, however, there are two additional sample essay prompts (accompanied by articles to analyze). Sample Prompt 1: "Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States." Sample Prompt 2: "Write an essay in which you explain how Adam B. Summers builds an argument to persuade his audience that plastic shopping bags should not be banned." hey thanks by Jonathan Youngblood, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and resized from original. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. Click on the button below to register for one of our livestreams today! How Do You Get the Most Out of These Prompts? Now that you have all the prompts released by the College Board, it's important to know the best way to use them. Make sure you have a good balance between quality and quantity, and don't burn through all 14 of the real prompts in a row- take the time to learn from your experiences writing the practice essays. Step By Step Guide on How to Practice Using the Article #1: Understand how the SAT essay is graded. #2: Follow along as we write a high-scoring SAT essay, step by step. #3: Plan a set of features you'll look for in the SAT essay readings and practice writing about them fluidly. This doesn't just mean identifying a technique, like asking a rhetorical question, but explaining why it is persuasive and what effect it has on the reader in the context of a particular topic. We have more information on this step in our article about 6 SAT persuasive devices you can use. #4: Choose a prompt at random from above, or choose a topic that you think is going to be hard for you to detach from (because you'll want to write about the topic, rather than the argument) set timer to 50 minutes and write the essay. No extra time allowed! #5: Grade the essay, using the official essay rubric to give yourself a score out of 8 in the reading, analysis, and writing sections. #6: Repeat steps 4 and 5. Choose the prompts you think will be the hardest for you so that you can so that you're prepared for the worst when the test day comes #7: If you run out of official prompts to practice with, use the official prompts as models to find examples of other articles you could write about. Startby looking for op-ed articles in online news publications like The New York Times, The Atlantic, LA Times, and so on. For instance, the passage about the plastic bag ban in California (Official SAT Study Guide sample essay prompt 2, above) has a counterpoint here- you could try analyzing and writing about that article as well. Any additional articles you use for practice on the SAT essay must match the following criteria: ideally 650-750 words, although it'll be difficult to find an op-ed piece that's naturally that short. Try to aim for nothing longer than 2000 words, though, or the scope of the article is likely to be wider than anything you'll encounter on the SAT. always argumentative/persuasive. The author (or authors) is trying to get readers to agree with a claim or idea being put forward. always intended for a wide audience. All the information you need to deconstruct the persuasiveness of the argument is in the passage. This means that articles with a lot of technical jargon that's not explained in the article are not realistic passage to practice with. What's Next? We've written a ton of helpful resources on the SAT essay. If you're just getting started, we recommend beginning with our top SAT essay tips for a quick overview of the essay task and what you need to know. A little more familiar with the SAT essay but still not quite sure how to write one? Follow along with our step-by-step guide to writing the SAT essay. Looking to earn a high score? Learn what it takes to get the highest score possible on the SAT essay here. Plus, if you want a reference linking you to all of our great articles on the SAT essay, be sure to check out our ultimate SAT essay guide. Want to improve your SAT score by 160points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice SAT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Change management, leadership and motivation of Nokia Assignment

Change management, leadership and motivation of Nokia - Assignment Example Nokia has an extended history of flourishing change and innovation which helped the company to adapt the shifts in markets and technologies. From its modest beginning with one paper mill, the company has taken part in many sectors over time; paper products, tires, plastics, rubber boots, consumer and industrial electronics, chemicals, cables, telecommunications infrastructure and more. (Nokia, 2015a). The journey of Nokia began in 1865 when Fredrik Idestam started a paper mill in Southwestern Finland which was followed by another mill on the banks of river Nokianvirta which inspired him to name his company ‘Nokia AB’. Nokia’s first step into telecom industry took place in the year 1967 when it was merged with a Finnish telecom company named Finnish Cable Works Ltd. The first telecom joint venture of Nokia with Finnish TV maker Salora was the establishment of Mobira Oy, a radio telecom firm (Nokia, 2015a). Nokia created a revolution in the telecom industry with sev eral achievements such as, evolution of the first cellular telecom network named Nordic mobile telephone service; introduction of Mobira Cityman and Mobira Senator; development of the Global System for Mobile (GSM) which is used in maximum number of commercial forms of communication. After tasting success in the telecom industry, Nokia solely concentrated on manufacturing superior phones. The entire nation was thankful to Nokia and the value of the company increased 500% with a global turnover from $8.9 billion to $42.8 billion (Nokia, 2015a).

Friday, October 18, 2019

Research Article Summary (Organizational Behaviour) Essay

Research Article Summary (Organizational Behaviour) - Essay Example Avolio and Howell in their article suggest that transformational leadership has three measures that define the performance of managers and these measures are linked with local of control and innovation. The article also discusses how transactional leadership is connected to manager performance but is negatively linked unlike transformational leadership. Dubinsky and Yammarino suggest in their article that that transformational leadership can be studied at the level of individuals, dyads and groups to understand how their performance is impacted by this leadership method. Dubinsky and Yammarino further define four hypotheses for their levels of analysis or evaluation on how transformational leadership is based on and is affected by individual differences, differences in dyads within groups, differences between dyads and between each of them, cross level: â€Å"Hypothesis 1: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory (five previously stated expectations) will hold at the individual level of analysis; that is, they are based on individual differences† â€Å"Hypothesis 2: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory will hold at the dyads-within-groups level of analysis; that is, they are based on differences among dyads within groups.† â€Å"Hypothesis 4: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory will be cross-level in nature, holding at three levels of analysis; that is, they are based on individual differences, between-dyads differences, and differences among dyads within groups.† To understand how business performance can be impacted through transformational leadership and whether performance is a direct result of transformational leadership, the following hypotheses have been designed by Avolio and Howell: Hypotheses 3a, 3b, and 3c: Charismatic leadership, leadership based on intellectual stimulation, and leadership based on individualized

Governments at all levels are increasingly becoming involved in Essay

Governments at all levels are increasingly becoming involved in festivals and events - Essay Example This paper analyses the reasoning and salient pros and cons associated with the involvement of governments in encouraging events. Government is a set of institutions which Edward Sildow and Beth Henschen (2008, p.4) defined as â€Å"the individuals and institutions that make society’s rules and that also possess the power and authority to enforce those rules." Thus, it can be established that government possesses the ultimate power to influence public, and to impose such rules that are in the best interest of society. Today, governments are increasingly becoming interested in promoting events because these act as a catalyst that has an enormous â€Å"social, economic and cultural impact† (Smith, 2003). This explains that governments are now trying to garner international attraction through hosting local and mega events and basically eyeing on the aspect of economic and monetary profits. For instance, the UK government realised the impact of facilitating events on the c ountry’s economy and has supported the private sector on the reconstruction of new and bigger venues since 70s. The outcome has been in the form of some international standard sites such as the National Exhibition Centre (Birmingham) and Wembley Centre (Bowdin et al, 2012). This was also the main reason behind Prime Minister Tony Blair's strong support to the organisation responsible for holding Olympics 2012, â€Å"London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games," (LOCOG), during the bidding ceremony in 2005. Through ramping up the investments from private sector, governments seek long-term benefits for the whole country and in a variety of spheres. However, it must be acknowledged that it is not the government only that enjoys the benefits involved, but the private sector has another set of interests that is sought through events. The diversity in festivals such as Hallmark and mega-events is an outcome of the government’s involvement. Today, e vents are of various categories with varying prospects. These include business events like meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions, in short MICE. Regional events are cultural or sports related and are organised every year. Every calendar event is a nation’s local festival such as Football or Rugby League matches, or religious/traditional celebrations such as Holi or Diwali in India. Hallmark events represent the customary festivals of a nation and mark an important historical event or anniversary. For instance, the event celebrated in South Africa of â€Å"10 Years of Democracy† in 2004 (Damster & Tassiopoulos, 2006). Mega-events such as Olympics, FIFA world cup or ICC Cricket World Cup; Tennis tournaments like Wimbledon and Common Wealth games, are not annual events and are held in a different part of the world by a particular organisation. Every government has its own specific motive behind pursuing and promoting events, and it can be entitled as an intel ligent strategy. For example, the motive of China's government has been different in comparison to UK because their main focus was on improving economic conditions through promoting travelling and locally prepared Chinese products. Chinese government did not just focus on mega events, but created newer holidays and altered the scale of traditional ones for achieving their goal. The transformation of three

Ethical Assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ethical Assessment - Essay Example Hence, practically speaking the onus to retain ethical integrity in the health care is primarily confined to the ability of an executive to resort to ethical words and actions during the course of one’s duty (Kultgen, 1988, p. 7). Considering that the professional ethical standards contrived by the bodies like ACHE do continue to serve as the standards following which, a health care executive could chalk one’s course. It goes without saying that the Code of Ethics constituted by the ACHE does serve a viable standard as per which the executives could assess one’s ethical credentials (American College of Healthcare Executives, 2012). In my personal capacity I believe that this ACHE Code of Ethics furnishes to me a touch stone going by which I could assess my individual role as a professional, especially more so when my role is directly linked to my identity and capacity as a health care executive. I emphatically hold that the availability of ethical standards do ma ke way for the inculcation of the values like human dignity and human welfare at the health care facilities and do make the health care more equitable, efficient and accessible. The ACHE Code of Ethics do pragmatically enables me as an executive in being true to my commitments to the patients, my colleagues, the organization which I serve, the society and the larger statutory and state guidelines and rules that govern the healthcare in the United States of America. The ethical assessment undertaken by me not only extended to me ample encouragement regarding the ethical spheres regarding which I was upright, but also furnished to me much insights regarding the aspects where I was unaware or perhaps deficient. While being involved with this assessment I do realized that I make it a point to conduct myself professionally while being in consonance with the values like fairness, integrity and honesty (Montefiore & Vines, 1999). I make it a point to assure that all my decisions and action s do tend to be in consonance with the statutory and legal guidelines and norms (Montefiore & Vines, 1999). I do have in place a personal program aimed at a realistic self assessment and a continual up gradation of my proficiency and skills. Besides, I never tend to be biased and unrealistic in my expectations from others. To continue my professional education I am right now pursuing a Masters program for mha/msn. I never tend to exploit my professional relations or position to accrue unwarranted advantages or favors. Yes, I do believe that it is imperative for an executive to divulge one’s financial or other conflicts of interest (Montefiore & Vines, 1999). Though, actually speaking, I had never been in the need to comply by this code, I do believe in its validity and relevance. I make it a point to never to misuse the confidence placed in me by others in a professional capacity. Yes, I do sometimes get a bit misplaced in the context of this ethical code. In a futuristic con text, I do believe that it is worthwhile to ask for the advice of someone who is not involved in the situation I face to get a better perspective. It is always my intention to carry myself in a way that bolsters and enhances the dignity and image of my profession. I also realized that I am quite aware of my responsibilities towards the patients. It is always my intention to continually access and gauge the quality and standards of health care services being accorded to the patients

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Transnational IT Operations Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Transnational IT Operations - Coursework Example In addition, with the emergence of information technology particularly the Internet and e-commerce, organizations have also slowly but surely engaged in intercontinental business as these technologies have presented them wonderful tools and opportunities. The reputation of globalization is straightforwardly linked with the reputation of information and communication technology for the reason that it facilitates organizations that at one time were not capable of launching and managing business operations internationally with the prospect of competing globally. It is an admitted fact that the transnational operations can offer the businesses a number of benefits at many different stages, as well as if supervised in the approved manner, the businesses can compensate the potential challenging features that exist in this process, providing these businesses with an optimized arrangement that can change the organization into a winning business working on an international stage. There are many advantages of transnational IT operations; some of the important advantages include access to the worldwide market, elasticity, diversity, and affordable business structures. At the same time as various challenges, for instance, service levels and quality of work have usually overwhelmed worldwide businesses. In this scenario, the development of latest tools and technologies and the knowledge derived from transnational IT operations are as well very much modernizing these aspects and areas and reducing the harmful impact usually held. In this scenario, variety in the human resources also allows the businesses to gain experience and search for latest tools required to launch their products and services internationally (Marulanda, 2010; Kniaziewicz, 2008). Additionally, this diversity does not simply present an opportunity to expand customer contact by

Fashion industry waste Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Fashion industry waste - Research Paper Example The essay "Fashion industry waste" explores the Fashion Industry and Throw Away Clothes. The job of creating clothes has now been majorly handed over to machines that produce optimum result by the minute. What used to be created in a matter of days has come to minutes. Although this idea has helped to make clothes accessible to people from every type of society, the negative impact is seen when we realize how much clothes may get wasted when we create them in bulks. It’s understandable that when there is demand, there is supply but not every piece of clothing makes its way into wardrobes. Fashion changes by the hour. It doesn’t take much time for the red to become the new black and subsequently, the orange to become the new red. What may be the â€Å"in† piece of clothing may not be in the limelight after a few hours. In such circumstances, large piles of clothes, which may never see the light of the day, may be found in dumpsters in landfill sites. But this cate gory can also include clothes that have been worn a lot or very little due to the aforementioned issue of fashion change. Similarly, people tend to throw out piece of clothing on slightest of issue like for example, if a shirt has lost a button or has caught a stain that can’t be removed, it’s liable to see its way to a dumpster. It is estimated that 14.3 million tons of textiles were produced in 2012, or 5.7 percent of total municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Many of these were dumped into landfill sites or were incinerated.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Transnational IT Operations Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Transnational IT Operations - Coursework Example In addition, with the emergence of information technology particularly the Internet and e-commerce, organizations have also slowly but surely engaged in intercontinental business as these technologies have presented them wonderful tools and opportunities. The reputation of globalization is straightforwardly linked with the reputation of information and communication technology for the reason that it facilitates organizations that at one time were not capable of launching and managing business operations internationally with the prospect of competing globally. It is an admitted fact that the transnational operations can offer the businesses a number of benefits at many different stages, as well as if supervised in the approved manner, the businesses can compensate the potential challenging features that exist in this process, providing these businesses with an optimized arrangement that can change the organization into a winning business working on an international stage. There are many advantages of transnational IT operations; some of the important advantages include access to the worldwide market, elasticity, diversity, and affordable business structures. At the same time as various challenges, for instance, service levels and quality of work have usually overwhelmed worldwide businesses. In this scenario, the development of latest tools and technologies and the knowledge derived from transnational IT operations are as well very much modernizing these aspects and areas and reducing the harmful impact usually held. In this scenario, variety in the human resources also allows the businesses to gain experience and search for latest tools required to launch their products and services internationally (Marulanda, 2010; Kniaziewicz, 2008). Additionally, this diversity does not simply present an opportunity to expand customer contact by

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Questionnaire Design Coursework Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Questionnaire Design Coursework - Essay Example e present research is conducted to determine the role of direct marketing and its potential benefits for the companies to acquire a competitive advantage in the industries. The primary aim of the study is to investigate how direct marketing activities contributes to the creation of competitive advantages. Therefore, primary research is gathering primary data from the (N=20) respondents from the survey questionnaires. The other section of the report presents a brief discussion based on the information and responses obtained. The main objective of this study is to determine the potential advantages of direct marketing techniques and its role in the creation of competitive marketing strategies. On the basis of prose research objectives, the following are the research questions for the study: Keeping in the mind of research questions and objectives, research has conducted a survey to gather information. The questionnaire is a research instrument that contains written set of questions to gather information from the respondents. The researchers make use of questionnaires together information from the respondents about the specific issue or area aims to be investigated. The questionnaires are used to gather information and opinions from the researcher that is cheaper and convenient. The questionnaires developed for this research is based on the research objectives underlay to collect exploratory information to develop understanding of the research questions. The questionnaires is composed of 10 questions in total, in which question 1 and 2 refer to demographic characteristics of the respondents, whereas the rest 8 question are specifically related to the research questions. The questionnaires are composed of closed-ended as well as open-ended questionnaires. It indicates exploratory questionnaires are developed to address and evaluated to gather information. The responses obtained from the close-ended questionnaires are based on Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The

Monday, October 14, 2019

Should Plastic Bags be Banned?

Should Plastic Bags be Banned? Plastic shopping bags are very cheap, useful and convenient:  Should they be banned? Introduction Universally, individuals and groups continue to advocate for the banning of plastic shopping bags, proposing that they be replaced with reusable biodegradable bags. Due to their synthetic nature, plastics are considered pollutants by critics. However, they are also very cheap, useful and convenient and a complete ban will have a significant negative economic impact for retailers, states and consumers. Both critics and advocates for the ban of plastic shopping bags have been outspoken, with each side presenting objective arguments to support their cause. By analysing the advantages and disadvantages of plastic shopping bags, the report attempts to examine the prospective economic, environmental and even social impacts that a ban on plastic could have in society. A realistic assessment based on objective studies will be critical in presenting an accurate evaluation of the plastic ban and will be helpful to all stakeholders involved. Background Ever since the emergence of plastics in the 1940s, they have grown to become extremely popular for consumers and industrial entities. Even in the 21st Century, the volume of plastic being manufactured annually continues to rise with the total production volume in the first decade of the century equalling the entire 20th Century’s production. An estimated 260 million tons of plastics are currently being produced annually for different purposes worldwide (Clapp and Swanston, 2009). Plastic shopping bags, defined as recyclable high-density polyethylene bags, are designed to be used only once. The increase in retail shopping and the emergence of retail venues in the 1970s led to the exponential increase in the popularity of plastic bags. Research by Clapp and Swanston (2009) indicate that plastic bags are the most popular grocery bag of choice for consumers worldwide. Estimates indicate that between 600 billion and 1.5 trillion plastic bags are used yearly around the world (Luis and Spinola, 2010). Plastics shopping bags are manufactured when fossil fuels are converted into polymers. Plastics are considered exceptionally durable and strong, an aspect that is counterproductive since it accounts for its negative properties. It is estimated that it takes between 400 and 1,000 years for a thin plastic to be broken down, hence they are considered a threat to the environment (Thompson, Moore, ComSaal, and Swan, 2009). Existing literature indicates that most citizens favour recycling rather than a complete ban of plastics. Surveys indicate that the majority of shoppers reuse plastic bags at least once (Ellis, Kantner, Saab and Watson, 2005). Current Situation The calls for a complete ban arise from the primary concerns associated with plastic shopping bags. The first concern is that plastics create a waste stream that is extremely difficult to eliminate or manage. Research carried out by the California Integrated Waste Management Board revealed that plastics of all kinds comprise an estimated 10% of the state’s disposable waste stream. A further estimated 0.3% and 0.13% of the total waste stream were plastic bags and plastic shopping bags respectively (Delaney Madigan, 2014). Plastic bags are also known to litter with different studies revealing that, of all the total litter collected in the world, between 1 and 5 percent are from plastic bags. In the US alone, consumers use a whopping 100 billion plastic bags annually, with a large proportion of this eventually becoming litter (Delaney Madigan, 2014). Another critical cause for apprehension is that plastic bags take a very long time to disintegrate. Research show that plastic bags can last for as long as 1,000 years, with the vast majority of this life cycle being within the end of life phase either as litter or in a landfill (Freinkel, 2011). The extensive lifespan results from its immunity to biodegradation, hence they can only photo degrade over very long time periods releasing toxic additives in the process which also pollute the ecosystem. A plastic bag’s lifecycle has also been noted for being greenhouse gas intensive since fossil fuels are the primary compounds used during their production. There have also been concerns about the effect of plastic bags on marine pollution. An assessment carried out by the United Sates Environmental Program (UNEP) revealed that an estimated 80% of all marine debris come from a land source of which 60%-80% are plastics (Delaney Madigan, 2014). Plastic marine debris exists in almost al l the regions of the world, hence it has created global pollution problems. Plastic directly affects more than 660 species of animals including fish, birds, turtles and a group of marine mammals (Bean, 2013). When the animals confuse the bags for food, their digestive tracks become blocked, a development which may eventually cause death. According to San Francisco marine officials, a study in which 370 autopsies were carried out found one in every three dead leatherback turtles to have some form of plastics in their stomachs (Bean, 2013). Call for Bans The documented undesirable effects of the plastic bags have led a number of individuals and groups to lobby for a worldwide ban on them. Studies show that even though the majority believed that consumer education would improve the situation, they have not achieved a significant reduction in single use bag consumption. According to Ellis, Kantner, Saab and Watson (2005), education campaigns have only led to a 5% decrease in voluntary plastic bag usage. As a result, certain nations have created mandatory ordinances to limit the use of plastic bags. In the United States for example, 17 states have ordinances that place bans and limitations on the use and distribution of plastic bags. Essentially, bans can be designed in various means although it will depend on how it reduces plastic bag use, limiting the overall environmental damage, the overall economic impact on consumers, manufacturers and retailers and the legislation’s ability to reduce plastic bag use (The Economist, 2007). A number of variables that may be considered when imposing a ban include the types of bags to be banned, whether or not to include a fee, promoting the use of alternative paper, attaching an amount to the specific type of bags, or specifying the type of bags to be used. Other variables should include the types and sizes of retail venues that the ban can affect, ordinance exemption and incentives that will enforce the ordinance such as fees or fines that accompany non-compliance (Clapp and Swanston, 2009). Potential Impacts of Plastic Bag Ban Economists and environmentalists have identified a number of potential economic impacts on the ban of plastics. A ban has the capacity of reducing the volume of plastic bags used in retail outlets. However, this will vary and can only be determined by customer feedback, retail venue feedback, analyses of baggage records, analysis of the disposition of waste stream and observational studies. A ban of plastic bags may be successful especially if retailers are subjected to charge customers for plastic bags as a measure for overall reduction. Using the case of Ireland which has achieved a 90% reduction in the use of plastic paper bags, it was evident that the initiation of a national fee served that purpose well (Sugii, 2008). A considerable environmental impact will also result from the ban of plastic paper bags if customers are subjected to pay for the use of the bags. The imposition of a complete ban or a fee for the usage will significantly reduce the environmental impact of plastic paper bag use. A complete ban on plastic paper bag may, however, be difficult to impose although it is estimated that this would result in between a 93% and 96% reduction in the reported environmental impacts. The goal should, therefore, be a step-by-step transition from the use of plastic bags to reusable bags so as to limit the eventual economic impact of plastics (Hasson, Leiman, and Visser, 2007). Economic Impact on Retailers A complete ban of plastic shopping bags or even a transition to other reusable bag types will have multiple economic effects. The effects will not only be on plastic manufacturers, but consumers, retailers and even entire cities and states will be affected. Retailers will be some of the worst affected entities with a ban on plastic shopping bags since in nearly all countries of the world, they offer them to customers at no charge. Although retailers purchase the bags at minimal costs, they are cost effective and can be charged on the retailer’s expense account. Retailers will still need to package goods for their customers in some way and the cost associated with alternative bags will be significantly greater for retailers. Retailers may also opt to sell the alternative paper bags to customers, a development which may be sustainable in the long run. Although in the short run retailers may suffer a loss due to the increase in the usage of paper bags, the loss can be mitigated if consumers start paying for their own reusable bags. Retailers may lose business if customers take their business elsewhere, especially when the ban is selective (Ellis, Kantner, Saab and Watsonm 2005). It is further documented that research from areas in which plastic bags were banned demonstrated a considerable decrease in sales. This is, however, disputable since the methodology used and the sample size of the study was relatively minimal and restricted within the boundaries of the Los Angeles County. Economic Impact to Consumers and Plastic Manufacturers A ban on plastic shopping bags would have a significant impact on consumers, since at present the bags are given free to consumers. However, a study by the United Nations Environmental Program revealed that plastic shopping bags are not actually free, but cost every household between $10 and $15 annually (Hasson, Leiman, and Visser, 2007). In order to estimate the potential economic impact that a ban on plastics could have on consumers, it is imperative to consider the price for the alternative reusable and paper bags. Although reusable bags are relatively costly, customers may actually save costs eventually since reusable bags are more durable and are designed to last for many years. Customers can even replace reusable stock a number of times further saving cost instead of paying recurring fees for paper bags (Hasson, Leiman, and Visser, 2007). Bans on plastic paper bags will also have a significant impact on plastic manufacturers since a significant proportion of their business is based on the domestic segment. A number of plastic manufacturers have aggressively opposed any proposed bans or measures to restrict the use of plastic bags. Although most of the manufacturers produce a wide variety of products, it is evident that any bans on plastic shopping bags will significantly hinder the companies’ revenue streams. Clapp and Swanston (2009) however argue that plastic bag manufacturing companies can mitigate the loss in business by switching to other product lines, such as the manufacture of reusable bags. Ellis, Kantner, Saab and Watsonm (2005) argue that it is not the shopping bag plastic manufactures that will lose, but the actual loss will be incurred by the larger plastic producers. Analysis and Conclusion Multiple arguments to support an opposition of the ban of plastics have been presented by opponents. According to Freinkel (2011), there is no need to ban plastics since the proportion of litter resulting from plastic shopping bag is too small to justify a total ban. He further argues that the ecological litter impact of plastic shopping bags, when quantified, is quite insignificant. A ban of the use of plastic paper bags could also cause significant job loses within the plastics manufacturing industry. Nonetheless, it has been argued that the job loses can be compensated when a number of businesses emerge to fill the need for reusable bags. Based on the analysis, the best option is to create measures with the objective of reducing the use of plastic shopping bags rather than implementing a complete ban. Even though there exists substantial literature documenting the environmental impact of banning plastic shopping bag, assessing the economic impact remains challenging. It is evident that a complete ban of the use of plastic shopping bags would affect a number of players within the plastic industry. Both retailers and consumers may be negatively affected in the short term as a result of an increase in baggage costs, but it is projected to decrease whenever a transition to reusable bags is effected. The plastic industry will, however, suffer even though plastic manufacturers can begin producing reusable bags. Bibliography AECOM Technical Services. (2010). Economic Impact Analysis: Proposed Ban on Plastic Carryout Bags in Los Angeles County. Los Angeles: AECOM. Bean,L. (2013). Silent Killers: TheDanger of Plastic Bags to Marine Life.  EcoWatch. Clapp, J. and Swanston, L. (2009). â€Å"Doing Away with Plastic Shopping Bags:  International Patterns of Norm Emergence and Policy†, Environmental Politics, 18:3, 315-332 Delaney, T., Madigan, T. (2014). Beyond sustainability: A thriving environment.  McFarland Company, Inc. Ellis, S., Kantner, S., Saab, A. and Watson, M. (2005). Plastic grocery bags: The Ecological  Footprint. Michigan Technological University. Freinkel, S. (2011). Plastic: A toxic love story. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Hasson, R., Leiman, A. and Visser, M. (2007). The Economics of Plastic Bag Legislation In  South Africa. South African Journal of Economics, 75(1): 66-83. Luis, I. P. and Spinola, H. (2010). The influence of a voluntary fee in the consumption of  Plastic bags on supermarkets from Madeira Island (Portugal). Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 53(7): 1-15. Sugii, T. (2008). Plastic Bag Reduction: Policies to Reduce Environmental Impact. Tufts  University The Economist. (2007). The War on Shopping Bags: Plastics of Evil. The Economist, March  29th, 2007. Thompson, R.C., Moore, C. J., ComSaal, F.S., and Swan, S. H. (2009). Plastics,theenvironment and human health†, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 364 (1526).

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Your Body Is Never Yours Essay example -- Literary Analysis, Disgrace

In Disgrace, sex is repeatedly used a source of power. Lurie takes advantage of his young student and also pays prostitutes for sex. The most violent act of power and hatred towards sex and women is Lucy ´s rape, performed by two black men. However, I claim sex is in fact not used for power, but that the author believes that we never own our own bodies. Therefore, considering they are not ours, they cannot be violated. Furthermore, he shows us that the worth of our bodies is simply limited to the expectations of people around us. I state that in Disgrace, your body does not belong to you. It is merely a product of expectations and responsibilities. In the opening of the book, Lurie pays for the service of prostitutes to find relief. In his younger days, he could use his charm and good looks to seduce women now â€Å"if he wanted a woman he had to learn to pursue her, in one way or another to buy her† (7). He speaks of wanting something, suggesting that a woman is a thing that can be had, or in this case purchased. While reflecting of the prize he pays for his favorite-prostitute ´s body he realizes that â€Å"in a sense they own Soraya too, this part of her, this function† (2). They, being the escort company that she belongs too. Here it is implied that Soraya is just a product that can be sold and purchased, or even rented out by its owner. When, one day Lurie sees Soraya shopping with her sons, their relationship change. She becomes a person, a living being and their relation ends on her initiative. This shows of her desire to restrain herself to an object in the eyes of her customer. Subsequently, as David no longer can take pleasure from Soraya, he benefits from his position as a respected teacher to take advantage of the much younge... ...eople ´s eyes. Our bodies are not ours, as Lucy affirmed after she has decided to get married to Petrus. â€Å"With nothing. Not with nothing but. With nothing. No cards, no weapon, no property, no rights, no dignity† (205). This is how she sees herself, and perhaps how every person in the novel sees themselves. Everyone realizes that their value is bound to something other than them, David to his status as a professor, Melanie to her youth and beauty, Pertrus to his property and ownership, Lucy to being independent and Bev, who sadly knows that as a dumpy older woman she has no value at all. A sad idea, but nonetheless true in Disgrace. That we are not people but mere products, to be valued, evaluated and graded. The use of power to obtain sex or of sex to obtain power then becomes secondary. As readers we are left with the query of whom or what is deciding our value.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Success of Micro Finance in Pakistan :: Finance

As found by Hartangi (2007) that success of Micro finance depends upon the practices of that specific bank, which finance poor people, by quoting and example of BRI (Bank Rakyat, Indonesia) researcher says that they provide technical and moral support to the people they lend money, and make sure they do good, they also choose different collaterals like motorcycle, cars, cattle, and land etc to secure their loan yet making collateral stronger incase the client fails to repay and credits interesting for lower class community. Beside this, Risk management, internal audit, financial procedures, transparent system, dedicated staff, and clear incentives to staff and clients are the factors which contribute toward the successful lending of micro finances. Obamuyi (2009) says that poor credit culture and low risk management can result in low rate of return, which finally ends with the failure of the scheme. The risk of low rate of return can also be minimized by the assistance provided by th e MFIs to develop the small business of clients (Zelealem, Temtime, & Shunda, 2003). RESEARCH METHADOLOGY Study type This study is a correlational study in which relation between income level, living standard, access to education, and empowerment due to micro financing in Pakistan is studied. Study setting Study was conducted in natural environment, and no lab settings were used while studying the relationship between income level, empowerment, access to education, and access to health facilities due to MFIs in Pakistan has been studies, which makes this study a non-contrived study. Unit of Analysis Different individuals, who obtained micro finances from Micro financial institutions of Pakistan, were asked to record their responses. Time Horizon Data was collected from individuals who obtained micro finances from MFIs in Pakistan once in one month time period; there will be no further data collection for this study. The collected responses are one shot, which make this study a cross-sectional study. Data This study utilized primary data as well as secondary data. Primary data was gathered from individual who obtained micro finances from MFIs in Pakistan, data was gathered using a prepared research instrument. And secondary data was collected for literature review, from different online research databases. Data Analysis Data was inspected, cleaned, transformed and modeled using SPSS V.17.0 to highlight useful information. Linear Regression was applied as per the requirement of the study to explore the relationship between increase in income, living standard, access to education, and empowerment, due to MFIs in Pakistan. Sampling type A non probability convenience sampling was done, questionnaire were distributed among customers of MFIs who were conveniently available to the researcher.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Of Mice and Men: An Unexpected Connection

Lennie and Curley’s wife come across as very different characters. They differ greatly in appearance, mentality, and personality. Despite their differences, though, Lennie and Curley’s wife are surprisingly similar in the way they both constantly need to create physical connections. As a result, they are able to relate to each other, and when they are finally alone together they address each other’s needs, which leads to a tragic end. Lennie and Curley’s wife are extremely different people, both externally and internally. Lennie is â€Å"a huge man, shapeless of face, †¦with wide, sloping shoulders,† (2) while Curley’s wife is a very â€Å"purty† (28) woman with â€Å"full, rouged lips and wide-spaced eyes† (31). Lennie has animalistic qualities and moves clumsily: â€Å"†¦he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws† (2). Contrastingly, Curley’s wife is more graceful and moves very quietly, which is depicted when Candy says, â€Å"Jesus Christ, Curley’s wife can move quiet† (82) after she had entered the stable on the way to Crooks’ bunk without anyone hearing her. Lennie suffers from an unknown mental illness – the other characters think he’s â€Å"nuts† (74)— and as a result, he acts callow, imitating the behavior of certain animals: He drank from the pool â€Å"with long gulps, snorting into the water like a horse,† (3) and he â€Å"dabbled his big paw in the water and wiggled his fingers so the water arose in little splashes† (3). Lennie is â€Å"a nice fella† (40) who is very innocent, illustrated by how he interacts with the girl in the red dress in Weed: â€Å"†¦he reaches out to feel this red dress, †¦he jus’ wanted to touch that dress† (42). He is also very tractable; â€Å"†¦he’d do any damn thing† (40) that George told him. In contrast, Curley’s wife is mentally sharper and very observant; she notices all â€Å"them bruises† (80) on Lennie’s face, which resulted from his fight with Curley, and realizes that he was the one who hurt Curley’s hand, not a machine. Curley’s wife is also very assertive, manipulative, and flirtatious. A clever lady, she knows how to get what she wants. The superiority of Curley’s wife’s qualities to those of Lennie later contributes to their tragic end. Both Lennie and Curley’s wife have to constantly create physical connections in their lives, but each for a different reason. Lennie has an obsession with petting soft things, which he reveals to Curley’s wife: â€Å"I like to pet nice things with my fingers, sof’ things† (90). His obsession, which he has had since he was a child – his Aunt Clara used to give him a piece of velvet to touch — is depicted throughout the book. In the beginning of the book, Lennie finds a dead mouse and when asked why he keeps it, he answers, â€Å"I could pet it with my thumb wile we walked along,† (6) expressing his desire to pet things, dead or alive. He wants to pet things so badly that after George throws the mouse off into the distance to get rid of it, Lennie goes and retrieves it again. In Weed, when Lennie saw the girl in the red dress who he had never even met before, he reached out to touch it, just to feel the dress. George describes Lennie’s obsession concerning Slim’s pups: â€Å"He’ll want to sleep right out in the barn with ‘em. We’ll have trouble keepin’ him from getting right in the box with them pups† (38). Lennie â€Å"wants to pet them pups all the time† (42). Furthermore, his dream to tend â€Å"furry† (16) rabbits results from his obsession. Lennie has a longing to pet every soft thing he encounters in the book and each time he fulfills his craving something unfortunate happens, foreshadowing the book’s final events. He doesn’t know his own strength and can’t control his obsession. Similarly, Curley’s wife has a constant need to physically feel loved. She is someone who needs a lot of love and attention (her dream was to be an actress), which her husband will never give her. As a result, she tries to interact with any guy she can; in Crooks’ room when talking to Candy, Crooks, and Lennie, she admits, â€Å"†¦what am I doin? Standin’ here talkin’ to a bunch of bindle stiffs†¦an’ likin’ it because they ain’t nobody else† (78). Slim comments on her behavior: â€Å"She ain’t concealin’ nothing†¦ She got the eye goin’ all the time on everybody†¦ Seems like she can’t keep away from guys† (51). Although many of the ranchers view her as a â€Å"tart,† (28) I believe that Curley’s wife is a genuinely lonely person. She expresses her loneliness to Lennie: â€Å"I get lonely†¦ You can talk to people, but I can’t talk to nobody but Curley† (87). Ironically, Lennie and Curley’s wife, who have nearly opposite qualities, can cater to each other’s need by responding to each other’s obsessions. Purposely kept apart by the author through various characters for most of the book, when Lennie and Curley’s wife are alone together for the first time, the already existent chemistry between them is ostensible, and the extent of their needs is so great that neither can resist acting upon them. Leading up to this final scene, Lennie’s attraction to Curley’s wife is unequivocal. When he first sees her, his eyes â€Å"[move] down over her body,† (31) and when she talks Lennie watches her with fascination. Furthermore when George speaks negatively about Curley’s wife, Lennie â€Å"defensively† says, â€Å"She’s purty† and then later repeats, â€Å"Gosh, she was purty† after which he smiles â€Å"admiringly† (32). Curley’s wife knows how to relate to Lennie and speak to him on his level. After Candy tells her that Curley’s hand was caught in a machine, she, knowing what really happened, speaks flirtatiously to Lennie: â€Å"O. K. , Machine. I’ll talk to you later. I like machines† (80). In the final scene, Curley’s wife indicates to Lennie that she understands his obsession; when Lennie reveals that he likes to pet things, she responds â€Å"Well, who don’t?†¦ Ever’body likes that. I like to feel silk an’ velvet. Do you like to feel velvet? † (90). Lennie and Curley’s wife open up to each other, and as a result the reader learns the most about these characters from this scene; Lennie explains his obsession, while Curley’s wife explains her loneliness and need to feel loved. The reciprocal connection between them is so strong that Lennie disobeys George’s orders, risking his dream of tending the rabbits, and succumbs to the temptation of Curley’s wife. Her loneliness is so great that Curley’s wife, aware of the consequences, â€Å"[takes] Lennie’s hand and [puts] it on her head† (90). Lennie’s obsession overpowers him, and he continuously strokes Curley’s wife’s hair harder and harder, making her scream in pain. Afraid that George â€Å"ain’t gonna let [him] tend no rabbits,† (91) when Curley’s wife doesn’t stop screaming, Lennie shakes her while covering her mouth and accidentally kills her. Lennie’s actions illustrate his lack of self-restraint, and he is therefore viewed as a threat to society. As a result, Lennie’s killing of Curley’s wife leads to the killing of Lennie. The characters that seem the least alike in Of Mice and Men, Lennie and Curley’s wife, ironically, share a common need that enables them to have one of the strongest connections in the book, both physically and emotionally. Knowing that they have the ability to satisfy each other’s needs, Lennie and Curley’s wife are in a very vulnerable situation that is full of temptation. Lennie can’t control his obsession and accidentally kills Curley’s wife, while trying to preserve his dream to tend rabbits that is based on his obsession. The physical connections that once gave them pleasure and happiness in life lead to each of their deaths.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

The Thematic Character of Everyday Use by Alice Walker

Often times after a person reads a piece of literature, he or she will form opinions about the motivations of the characters, the effects of the setting, the overall theme or underlying message being conveyed, and the other elements that helped to shape the whole story. After contemplating about their particular beliefs about a work, individuals will find their ideas to be different from others because each of them perceives details of the tale in a varying manner. For this reason, it was not surprising that many of my classmates and I had conflicting opinions about the main themes present in Alice Walker†s â€Å"Everyday Use (For Your Grandmama). Numerous members of the class strongly felt that the story†s central theme lied in the differing values of each the characters. They used textual evidence to prove that Dee†s views on certain issues were so unlike those of her mother and Maggie†s that they actually created a barrier between Dee and her family. Others felt that the setting and the type/amount of education influenced the motives of each of the characters. These people referred to the fact that Dee had the opportunity to obtain a proper education and that Mama and Maggie did not. The rural setting served as a means to enhance their views because it showed that most people had to work instead of receiving an education. In comparison with these viewpoints mentioned, I took a much different approach to interpreting the principal theme of this story. I truly believed that â€Å"Everyday Use† was about the ways in which Dee†s personality affected herself and her family. Using this generalized notion, I developed a more precise theme for this work. Each of us is raised within a culture, a set of traditions handed down by those before us. As individuals, we view and experience common heritage in subtly differing ways. Within many smaller communities and families, deeply felt traditions serve to enrich this common heritage. Alice Walker's â€Å"Everyday Use† explores how, in her eagerness to claim an ancient heritage, Dee denies herself the substantive personal experience of familial traditions in such incidents as the justification of her name change, her comments during the meal with the family, and her requesting Mama for the quilts. Upon arriving at her mother†s new house for the first time, Dee surprises her mother and Maggie with her appearance and her apparent name change. Dee quickly informs her mother that she has made her new name â€Å"Wangero† to reflect her African heritage. She no longer will be named after the people who oppress her. This reference can be attributed to Dee†s possible experiences as a civil rights activist. Among the black community many people adopt African names to reflect their pre-slavery heritage. While this can be a source of strength and affirmation for some, it may represent a rejection of one's past, as it apparently does for Dee. Even her mother†s response that she was named ‘Dee' after her aunt, who was named for the aunt's mother, â€Å"though I probably could have carried it back beyond the Civil War through the branches,† does not have any true effect on her perception of her given name (32). Dee still feels that being called â€Å"Wangero† will give her cultural fulfillment, whereas her real name holds her back from attaining this. She fails to recognize that her mother†s words actually show how the family is proud to pass the name ‘Dee† along generations to help preserve their own traditions. Dee does not feel the pride that is associated with her real name because she possesses a certain prejudice against her family that will not allow her to embrace her own private heritage. This prejudice is rooted in her beliefs that her mother and Maggie are incapable of relating her views due to their lack of education and their unwillingness to accept new ideas. Judging from Dee†s opinions about her name, readers can clearly see that she has misunderstandings about her living heritage that prevent her from feeling the joy of carrying on a family name. Against Dee's claim to her African roots is the thread of tradition in her own family. Not only has Dee achieved an education denied her mother, she has rejected her given name, and she sees self-created symbolism in the food and objects present at the meal. Dee â€Å"[goes] on through the chitlins and corn bread,† â€Å"[talks] a blue streak over the sweet potatoes,† and â€Å"[thoroughly] delights herself [with] everything† (45). Dee finds this meal to be a sort of novelty that she can only appreciate properly because she is now in the proper surroundings to do so. Her usually more sophisticated diet leaves her room to relish such a simple meal and its reflection of her African roots, not her rural family culture. She admits to Mama to not appreciating as a child the benches on which they are sitting, made by her father. Dee can â€Å"feel the rump prints† (46). Yet, when next Dee exclaims to her mother that she wants the butter churn which was whittled out of a tree by her uncle, and that she will use it as a centerpiece for one of her tables, readers suspect her appreciation for the benches and the churn is really as mere artifacts. Dee then turns her attention to the dasher used with the churn. She assures everyone that she will â€Å"‘think of something artistic to do with the dasher'† (53). When the shy Maggie informs them her uncle Henry made the dash, and that they used to call him Stash, Dee exclaims, â€Å"‘Maggie's brain is like an elephant's',† implying that Maggie's knowledge is feral, that she can't help but hold on to facts which are irrelevant (53). Real, human details, such as the name of the man who made the dasher, are not relevant to Dee. She feels the workmanship in the dasher represents good quality art that should be displayed accordingly to mirror her appreciation of her roots. Dee sees the object as a thing of beauty, but not as a part of her very personal culture, a utility reflecting the effort and determination of those who once used it. In turn, she is alienating herself from her personal identification of family†s past through her superficial recognition of the dasher†s value. Dee†s family knows that â€Å"hesitation [is] no part of [Dee's] nature,† and that she is determined to achieve what she desires (6). In the bedroom, rifling through her mother's keepsakes, Dee finds her grandma†s quilts, and tries to lay claim to them. The quilts are made of old dresses and cloths, some handed down from several prior generations. When Dee asks her mother if she can have them, we sense a turning point is reached. Since Dee already rejected them once before, Mama responds to Dee†s request by stating that the quilts have been promised to Maggie. Dee argues that her mother and Maggie cannot properly appreciate the quilts, that the quilts should be displayed. ‘Maggie†¦ [would] probably be backward enough to put them to everyday use'† (66). Dee†s claim to the quilts and her plans to use them as decorations show her outward perception of family heirlooms to be mere objects of display, not treasured items that help people remember their loved ones and make them appreciate the hard work put into them. Dee†s adopted values cloud her mind and thoughts, making her naive to the integrity and genuine nature of her culture. Her mother†s refusal to grant this one favor does not even create any sense of misgivings on her part. Her arrogance and her adherence to her misguided beliefs make her unable to see the true worth of the quilts and their importance to her family†s traditions. Dee†s notions about the quilts thwart her from experiencing the happiness associated with displaying one†s own familial culture to the rest of the world. Our heritage threads through history past the people who contributed to it, to affect us on a personal level. To be fully appreciated and claimed, it must reside in the heart. Dee understands the heritage of people she doesn't know. In this way, her adopted heritage can be understood intellectually, but it is not felt, not personal, and not truly her own. Her rejection of her family†s culture in the rural society will not allow to ever have feelings of personal pride about her true roots. In turn, Dee can never really find happiness in most aspects concerning her immediate family, making it hard for her to have a loving relationship with any of them.