Friday, May 31, 2019
In Roe et al. v. Wade District Attorney of Dallas County (1973), one of the most controversial cases in new-fangled history, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down all state laws that limit a womans right to an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. Justices Rehnquist and White dissented.Mr. Justice Blackmun delivered the vista of the Court....This Texas national appeal and its Georgia companion, Doe v. Bolton, post, p. 179, present constitutional challenges to state criminal abortion legislation. The Texas statutes under attack here are typical of those that assimilate been in effect in many States for approximately a century. The Georgia statutes, in contrast, have a modern cast and are a legislative product that, to an extent at least, obviously reflects the influences of recent attitudinal change, of advancing medical knowledge and techniques, and of new thinking about an old issue.We forthwith acknowledge our sentiency of the sensitive and emotional nature of the abortion controversy, of the vigourous opposing views, even among physicians, and of the deep and seemingly absolute convictions that the subject inspires. Ones philosophy, ones experiences, ones exposure to the raw edges of human existence, ones religious training, ones attitudes toward disembodied spirit and family and their values, and the moral standards one establishes and seeks to observe, are all likely to influence and to color ones thinking and conclusions about abortion....The Texas statutes that concern us here are Arts. 1191-1194 and 1196 of the States Penal Code. These work it a crime to "procure an abortion," as therein defined, or to attempt one, except with respect to "an abortion procured or attempted by medical advice for the nominate of saving the life of the mother." Similar statutes are in existence in a majority of the States.Texas first enacted a criminal abortion statute in 1854. Texas Laws 1854, c. 49, Sec. 1, set forth in 3 H. Gammel, La ws of Texas 1502 (1898). This was soon modified into language that has remained substantially unchanged to the present time....Jane Roe, a single woman who was residing in Dallas County, Texas, instituted this federal action in March 1970 against the District Attorney of the county. She sought a declaratory judgment that the Texas criminal abortion statutes were unconstitutional on their face, and an injunction restraining the suspect from enforcing the statutes.Roe alleged that she was unmarried and pregnant that she wished to terminate her pregnancy
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Anna Kingsley, a woman of strength and determination overcame many odds not expected of an African American slave. She married a slave owner, owned land, and was once a slave herself. She was well known in a free black community she helped establish.Anna Madgigine Jai Kingsley was the wife of woodlet owner Zephaniah Kingsley. She was the daughter of a man of high status. Her fathers sides were descendants of the well know Njaajan Njaay, the creators of the Jolof Empire. Her father was killed in April 1806, the day she was captured. The tyeddo warriors invaded her village and hive away all the villagers to be sold as slaves. That day she not only lost her freedom and her home, entirely also her dignity and her youth (Harvey, 41).Anna and the others were lead to a ship and they sailed from Senegal to Havana, Cuba to be sold as slaves. The Havana Market was the center of commerce of Spains colonies in America (Schafer, 23). Anna arrived in Florida in 1806. She was thirteen geezerho od old. Zephaniah Kinglsey Jr was a citizen of Spanish East Florida. He was born in England, but raised in Charleston, South Carolina. His father, a merchant, moved his family to Nova Scotia because he was banished from South Carolina for bad support to King George III at time of the American Revolution. In 1808, Kinglsey moved to Florida, where he pledged his fidelity to Spain and imported slaves on his plantation (Schafer, 21). at a time purchased, Kingsley boarded Anna on the ship Esther and they sailed to Laurel Grove Plantation north and on the west of the St. Johns River. This would be her new home. She did not stay in the slave quarters, but she did stay in his two-story home. He thought of her as his wife and she was carrying his child. A few months before Anna gave birth she became manager of Kingsleys household located at Laurel Grove. Most of the slaves came from East and West Africa. The plantation consisted of corn, cotton, mandarin oranges, sugarcane, potatoes and be ans. According to Kinglsey color ought not be the badge of degrading, only the feature should be between slaves and free, not between white and colored (Schafer, 32).Anna and Zephaniah were open about their relationship. She was the head wife or woman in a polygamous household. One March 4, 1811 after five years of enslavement, Anna was emancipated by her husband. She was now a free woman again. In 181... ...she once again had to let the home she created because Florida seceded the union. The Civil War soon followed. After the Civil War, Anna never had the wealth and power that she once had. Her personal wealth was acquired through ownership of her slaves. in that location is no true documentation as to when Anna died, but it is thought to be between 1860 and 1870. Anna Madgigine Jai Kingsley was buried in a peaceful grove off the St. Johns River in Florida. She is surrounded by many family members including her daughters. She rests peacefully in an unmarked grave sheltered fro m the violence that followed her through a life marked by danger, courage, grim defense of family, flight, and triumphant return (Schafer, 121). She was a remarkable and determined black woman who achieved many accomplishments that are extraordinary. She became a well known figure in a free black community.Works CitedHarvey, Karen. Daring daughters St. Augustines feisty females. Virginia Beach, VA, 2002Schafer, Daniel. Anna Madgigine Jai Kingsley. Florida, 2003Tilford, Kathy, Anna Kingsley A free woman. OAH Magazine of history 12, 1997http//www.oah.org/pubs/magazone/women/tilford.htm
Beyond slope Development Bilingual Approaches to Teaching Immigrant Students and English row LearnersWhat a feeling Learning a natural language gives individuals a new way of thinking and feeling. Learning a new manikin of language involves having total commitment and total involvement from students and give instructioners. In the article, Beyond English Development Bilingual Approaches to Teaching Immigrant Students and English Language Learners charges there argon various standard definitions that describe language (Billings, Martin-Beltran, and Hernandez, 2010). Language is employ to communicate with others and is essentially human, but not limited to only human beings. As individuals acquire English as their Second Language, they visit that language is acquired by all kinds of people in the same way. Mostly children can adapt and/or learn a foreign language better than adults due to children underdeveloped language and skills spontaneously (Honigsfield, 2009). Secon d language learners have variables such as memory, perception, acquisition, conscious and unconscious learning styles, and recall. Even though, second language learners have those instilled variables, it is desperate for the teachers to guide learning and set the conditions of learning.Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical ActionsIn the article, Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical Actions, Kohner (2010) indicate numerous school districts that have implemented bilingual programs to help the English Language Learners. triple language programs enhance student outcomes and close the achievement cleft of Second Language Learners (Coyoca and Lee, 2009... ... learners enjoy each others culture and life experiences as they relate to subject-areas (Nemeth, 2009). completionThe population of the United States increased with school age children speech English as their second language. Strong community leaders and school districts are mandatory to ensure English language learners attend effective programs that teach them English and push them to graduate successfully (Buysse, Castro, and Peisner-Feinberg, 2010). School districts across America use their consume approach to accommodate the learning of English language learners by having a single or combination of programs (Li and Edwards, 2010). Dual language programs allow children to collaborate in developmental levels such as cognitive with tasks in English and Spanish (Pascopella, 2011). English language learners and English proficient students learn from each other. Dual Language Programs Essays -- Bilingual Education, foreign languageBeyond English Development Bilingual Approaches to Teaching Immigrant Students and English Language LearnersWhat a feeling Learning a new language gives individuals a new way of thinking and feeling. Learning a new kind of language inv olves having total commitment and total involvement from students and teachers. In the article, Beyond English Development Bilingual Approaches to Teaching Immigrant Students and English Language Learners indicates there are various standard definitions that describe language (Billings, Martin-Beltran, and Hernandez, 2010). Language is used to communicate with others and is essentially human, but not limited to only human beings. As individuals learn English as their Second Language, they learn that language is acquired by all kinds of people in the same way. Mostly children can adapt and/or learn a foreign language better than adults due to children developing language and skills spontaneously (Honigsfield, 2009). Second language learners have variables such as memory, perception, acquisition, conscious and subconscious learning styles, and recall. Even though, second language learners have those instilled variables, it is imperative for the teachers to guide learning and set th e conditions of learning.Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical ActionsIn the article, Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical Actions, Kohner (2010) indicate numerous school districts that have implemented bilingual programs to help the English Language Learners. Dual language programs enhance student outcomes and close the achievement gap of Second Language Learners (Coyoca and Lee, 2009... ... learners enjoy each others culture and life experiences as they relate to subject-areas (Nemeth, 2009). ConclusionThe population of the United States increased with school age children speaking English as their second language. Strong community leaders and school districts are needed to ensure English language learners attend effective programs that teach them English and push them to graduate successfully (Buysse, Castro, and Peisner-Feinberg, 2010). School districts across America use their own approach to accommodate the learning of English language learners by having a single or combination of programs (Li and Edwards, 2010). Dual language programs allow children to collaborate in developmental levels such as cognitive with tasks in English and Spanish (Pascopella, 2011). English language learners and English proficient students learn from each other.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
The guess of topsy-turvynessWhere Chaos begins, classical science ends. Ever since physicists have inquired into the laws of disposition, the have not begun to seek irregular berth of nature, the global and discontinuous side, that have always puzzled scientists. They did not attempt to understand disorder in the atmosphere, the turbulent sea, the oscillations of the heart and brain, and the fluctuations of wildlife populations. completely of these things were taken for granted until in the 1970s some American and European scientists began to investigate the randomness of nature. They were physicists, biologists, chemists and mathematicians but they were all seeking one thing connections between incompatible kinds of irregularity. Physiologists found a affect order in the chaos that develops in the hu firearm heart, the prime cause of a sudden, unexplained death. Ecologists explored the rise and fall of capital of Italy moth populations. Economists dug out gray stock price data and tried a new kind of analysis. The insights that emerged led directly into the natural world- the shapes of clouds, the paths of lightning, the microscopic intertwining of business line vessels, the galactic clustering of stars. (Gleick, 1987) The man most responsible for coming up with the Chaos theory was Mitchell Feigenbaum, who was one of a handful of scientists at Los Alamos, New Mexico when he first started thinking close Chaos. Feigenbaum was a little known scientist from New York, with only one published work to his name. He was working on aught very important, like similar periodicity, in which he and only he had 26 hour days instead of the usual 24. He gave that up because he could not bear to stir up to setting sun, which happened periodically. He spent most of time watching clouds from the hiking trails above the laboratory. To him could represented a side of nature that the mainstream of physics had passed by, a side that was fuzzy and detailed, and structu red yet unpredictable. He thought about these things quietly, without producing any work. After he started looking, chaos seemed to be everywhere. A flag snaps back and frontward in the wind. A dripping faucet changes from a steady pattern to a random one. A rising tugboat of smoke disappears into random swirls. Chaos breaks across the lines that separate scientific disciplines. Because it is a science of the global nature of systems, it has brought together thinkers from fields that have been widely separated.The Theory of Chaos scienceThe Theory of ChaosWhere Chaos begins, classical science ends. Ever since physicists have inquired into the laws of nature, the have not begun to explore irregular side of nature, the erratic and discontinuous side, that have always puzzled scientists. They did not attempt to understand disorder in the atmosphere, the turbulent sea, the oscillations of the heart and brain, and the fluctuations of wildlife populations. All of these things were ta ken for granted until in the 1970s some American and European scientists began to investigate the randomness of nature. They were physicists, biologists, chemists and mathematicians but they were all seeking one thing connections between different kinds of irregularity. Physiologists found a surprising order in the chaos that develops in the human heart, the prime cause of a sudden, unexplained death. Ecologists explored the rise and fall of gypsy moth populations. Economists dug out old stock price data and tried a new kind of analysis. The insights that emerged led directly into the natural world- the shapes of clouds, the paths of lightning, the microscopic intertwining of blood vessels, the galactic clustering of stars. (Gleick, 1987) The man most responsible for coming up with the Chaos theory was Mitchell Feigenbaum, who was one of a handful of scientists at Los Alamos, New Mexico when he first started thinking about Chaos. Feigenbaum was a little known scientist from New York , with only one published work to his name. He was working on nothing very important, like quasi periodicity, in which he and only he had 26 hour days instead of the usual 24. He gave that up because he could not bear to wake up to setting sun, which happened periodically. He spent most of time watching clouds from the hiking trails above the laboratory. To him could represented a side of nature that the mainstream of physics had passed by, a side that was fuzzy and detailed, and structured yet unpredictable. He thought about these things quietly, without producing any work. After he started looking, chaos seemed to be everywhere. A flag snaps back and forth in the wind. A dripping faucet changes from a steady pattern to a random one. A rising column of smoke disappears into random swirls. Chaos breaks across the lines that separate scientific disciplines. Because it is a science of the global nature of systems, it has brought together thinkers from fields that have been widely sepa rated.
The unhealthiness of Masturbation Values and the concept of Disease by EngelhardtEnglhardts article The Disease Of Masturbation is an example of the ways in which determine impact societys definition of disease. I agree that it is possible that science is being, or has been, limited by the values within society. For science to conclude that masturbation safaris such aliments as blindness and epilepsy it appears evident that science is being misguided by values of the time. I deal that science also realizes that values play a part in research conducted, otherwise there would be no need for blind and reprize blind studies. Blind studies are used to help eliminate bias brought on by the experimenter or the test subject.In the eighteenth and nineteenth speed of light masturbation was thought to produce the signs and symptoms of a dangerous disease Disease is neither an objective entity nor a concept of a single definition, there is not, nor need be, unrivalled concept of disease (UWO, p.241). The problem with Englehardts article is our health system is that of the biomedical model. The biomedical model does not recognize masturbation as a disease. It states that disease is a biological excursus from the norm that can be explained scientifically (Charland). Masturbation has not been proven to fit into either category. Masturbation may have been a deviation from the norm at one point in time, but I do not believe that it can be explained scientifically. Englehardts article says that masturbation was the cause of such illnesses as blindness and vertigo. But how were these conclusions drawn? Were these conclusions scientific in nature or gathered according to the views and values of the times? Masturbation was glum into a disease, not with just somatic, but psychological dimensions. Tissot states that masturbating is even more debilitating than sex because of a loss of seminal fluid (1oz equals 40oz of blood). When seminal loss takes place in a position othe r than the recumbent position the effects are multiplied. Tissot successfully establishes that masturbation is associated with physical and mental maladies. Englehardt should stipulate how Tissot reaches this conclusion. thither are also disagreements as to whether frequent sex is any different than masturbation. It is argued that the difference between masturbation and sex is the expenditure of nerve force that is equilibrise by the magnetism of the partner. Masturbation is worse because it is unnatural and therefore less satisfying.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
It was one of the broadest bookings in Greek history, the battle of Achilles with bullyrag (Homer. Iliad. 22) and Cycnus (Ovid. Metamorphoses. 14) these two different versions of the trojan War had both similarities and differences. As we dejection notice from these two books, there are similarities of caliber in Homers version of Achilles and Ovids version Achilles. Furthermore, the similarity of both Trojan heroes having the alike(p) enemy in both versions of The Trojan War. On the other hand, the difference between these two battles of Achilles is the character and how both Trojan heroes performed during the battle with Achilles. In addition, the briny reason initiates battle of Achilles is different when he fights with ballyrag and Cycnus additionally, how Achilles treats their corpse after he kills them, were not the same in both battles. Furthermore, the setting and timing of the battle between Achilles and the two Trojan heroes are distinct from one to another.Accordin g to Homer, Hector was the greatest and most famous mortal heroes in the history of Troy, who has saved Troy from many wars and have been treated as the guardian of his father, Priam kingdom. On the other hand, in Ovid version of The Trojan War, there are two great Trojan warriors, Hector and Cycnus, son of Poseidon, the latter is invulnerable warrior and have killed 1000 Greeks troop at the Trojan beach easily when the Greeks first landed on the beach. The character of Achilles, son of Peleus, in both battles has some similarities which are the violent, arrogant and uncontrollable like a beast. Achilles trusted his skill to fight and shows his arrogant character can be found in Iliad,Achilles shook his head at his soldiersHe would not allow anyone to shoot A... ... year of the war. In general, the battle of Achilles with Hector and Cycnus had some similarities and differences. Both of the Trojan heroes are loyal to their country and both are Troy greatest warriors. Other than that , both versions of Achilles poses the arrogant and beast characteristic. However, the characters and attitudes of Hector and Cycnus in the battle with Achilles are completely different, where Hector fears and hesitate to battle with Achilles while Cycnus confidently faces the battle with Achilles. In addition, the main reason of battles is different which cartroad to different treatment of Achilles to their corpse, where Hector corpse was badly treated by Achilles rage for the revenge of Patroclus death. Last but not least, the setting of both battles Trojan heroes is completely different, even-thought they were fighting with the same enemy, Achilles.
It was one of the greatest battles in Greek history, the battle of Achilles with Hector (Homer. Iliad. 22) and Cycnus (Ovid. Metamorphoses. 14) these two contrary versions of the trojan horse War had both similarities and differences. As we spate take note from these two books, there are similarities of acknowledgment in Homers version of Achilles and Ovids version Achilles. Furthermore, the similarity of both Trojan heroes having the same rival in both versions of The Trojan War. On the other hand, the difference among these two battles of Achilles is the character and how both Trojan heroes performed during the battle with Achilles. In addition, the main undercoat initiates battle of Achilles is different when he fights with Hector and Cycnus additionally, how Achilles treats their corpse after he kills them, were not the same in both battles. Furthermore, the setting and timing of the battle between Achilles and the two Trojan heroes are distinct from one to another.Accordi ng to Homer, Hector was the greatest and most famous mortal heroes in the history of troy, who has protected Troy from many wars and have been treated as the guardian of his father, Priam kingdom. On the other hand, in Ovid version of The Trojan War, there are two great Trojan warriors, Hector and Cycnus, son of Poseidon, the latter is invulnerable warrior and have killed 1000 Greeks troop at the Trojan beach easily when the Greeks first landed on the beach. The character of Achilles, son of Peleus, in both battles has many similarities which are the violent, arrogant and uncontrollable like a beast. Achilles trusted his skill to fight and shows his arrogant character can be found in Iliad,Achilles shook his head at his soldiersHe would not allow anyone to shoot A... ... year of the war. In general, the battle of Achilles with Hector and Cycnus had some similarities and differences. Both of the Trojan heroes are loyal to their country and both are Troy greatest warriors. Other tha n that, both versions of Achilles poses the arrogant and beast characteristic. However, the characters and attitudes of Hector and Cycnus in the battle with Achilles are only different, where Hector fears and hesitate to battle with Achilles while Cycnus confidently faces the battle with Achilles. In addition, the main reason of battles is different which lead to different treatment of Achilles to their corpse, where Hector corpse was badly treated by Achilles rage for the revenge of Patroclus death. Last but not least, the setting of both battles Trojan heroes is completely different, even-thought they were fighting with the same enemy, Achilles.
Monday, May 27, 2019
The plea legitimate of watching movies is considered vital in our society today. It gives us a temporary escape from realism and allows us to indulge in a world of thrills and chills within the persona of each character in the use up that we watch. We in each case find ourselves contemplating on the identities of characters and someways see a breach of our life in theirs. Typical reaction of movie goers are good, boring, exciting and O. K. Peoples head is base on their feelings and how the engage made them feel that way. Are they triggered with fear during the movie? Did they break off up crying?Did they feel good at the end of the movie and leave the theater with a smile on their faces? This approach in analyzing a movie is not really bad, since feelings and sensual pleasures are part of hu manistic approach and initial reaction. An audience tends to react based how they exactly feel right after theyve seen a make how they indulge in magic on magical movies, how they d rop off their seats during suspense and horror scoots, and how they feel the triumph of heroes and heroic figures on suspense and action films. Movies give us a two- to three-hour escort that we practically lack in our daily lives.They also give us ideas and make us try to imagine what kind of life are we going to experience if we are in the shoes of the characters that we have watched. Movie Construction Movies are not just now judged according to our feelings and emotions but also with ideas and assumptions. The plots and story give us a better vision and meaning of our own lives. Most nation are not good evaluating, examining, and analyzing movies. Most people dont bother to think much(prenominal) because they are after the experience of feeling different emotions or they just love the actors and actresses of the film.As a student who is in line with film studies, I think various bases should be apply in analyzing movies. With this learning, we dont only enjoy the film tha t we are watching but be more keen observers on the different aspects of movies that filmmakers tend to hide from us how the film is made and what values are promoted (Kolker, 1999, p. 33). We oft forget that films are not only artificial construction where people on screen are only projections from television and made turn up of cameras and videos.We should bear in mind that these films are results of thousand hours of writing scripts, directing, acting, shooting, editing, cutting, and splicing. Most filmmakers tries their best and makes them forget that its just a story by making sure that there is no equipments corresponding cameras or microph aces seen as a part of the filming context. They also work very hard to keep us from noticing how the film is pieced together from the footage taken in umteen different places, from many different camera positions, and over a much longer period of time than we experience in watching it.Because were used to thinking that seeing is believ ing, that pictures dont lie, it is easy to feel as if what we are seeing is really happening. (Mast, 2008) prefatory Terms in Movie compendium Shots These are streams of images which are not interrupted by editing it is a continuity of scenes and where graphics are create by series of still frames. In order to be able to think about a film, we have to resist the suspension of disbelief in order to pay attention to how the film is put together. Start by noticing when one shot ends and another begins.In film studies parlance, a shot is any unbroken, unedited length of film. (Kolker, 1999, p. 33) In most films shots gives us interpretation regarding scenes and characters. We can see the emotions and predict future events base on shots provided in the film. Like the primitive long shots that gives us the boilers suit scenario where the enemies and soldiers begins a battle. Most of the time shots are cut through editing so that it will appear as one to the viewer but in reality it is taken with series of shots to make up one particular scene.Once we have enough knowledge in analyzing the shots and editing in the movie we can also study how the film starts to manipulate us and our feelings through the emit of watching the immaculate movie. Shorter shots gives us high-velocity pacing of the film and transitions in the events of the characters. When we get used to fast films like this, films with longer shots and fewer cuts can seem slow and difficult to watch. But, of course, such fast-paced films also make it harder to thinkFilms that constantly use close-up shots of the characters create a higher level of intensity and intimacy than do films which focus more on landscape, geography, and other aspects of context. (Mast, 2008) If a film always provides us shots of the characters it gives us the notion that these individuals are the most important element in the story and through the rest of the film, places and situations also gives valuable shot as it sh apes the lives of the main character. Scenes and Sequences This usually takes place in a single time and place with the characters of the film having a confabulation at a given time.There are times that two scenes are provided in the film alternately showing the viewers different scenarios which often combined or talks about the same topic. Sometimes a single scene may contain two lines of action, occurring in different spaces or even different times, that are related by means of crosscutting. Scene and sequence can usually be used interchangeably, though the latter enclosure can also refer to a longer segment of film that does not obey the spatial and temporal unities of a single scene. For example, a collage sequence that shows in a few shots a process that occurs over a period of time. (Film Analysis Guide 2008) Story/Plot This term refers to the overall order of the film. It is consist of settings, time frame, events and the relations between them. Story on the other hand is more extensive sine it is more straightforward peculiarly if the genre is drama where the story is manipulated by the plot to produce dramatic effects. Often times we tend to interpret easily a film based on the story without openhanded consideration to other factors in the film. We easily conclude that this film is made merely to frighten or to make us laugh or cry. Without noticing factors like the mise-en-scene.Mise-en-scene This is the overall projection of the film on an audience perspective. All things are put in the scene which includes the setting, properties, wardrobe, lights, acting,etc. Things like this often manipulates the minds of the viewers as they tend to easily judge the character based on its appearance. This is also one strategy that a film critic may use in determining the role of each character. For example if the character wears red and the rest of the cast wears pink we can easily say that he is the lead character and the whole story will revolve around hi m.Props also gives us interpretation regarding future events once they are used as symbolism in the film. With the use of shots and camera angles we can easily predict a future event like a shot of glossa then the lead character then the villain. The mise-en-scene is arranged in a way that the viewer can picture out totally what is happening in the film itself. Genres The type of films are recognized and analyzed based also on its genre. This gives the film certain distinctions in terms of narrative or rhetorical conventions, or merely by their discursive organization in influential criticism.Genres are made necessary by high volume industrial production. (Film Analysis Guide 2008) Focus This is another element of film wherein the degree of light rays coming from any particular part of an object pass through the electron lens and re-converge at the same point on a frame of the film negative, creating sharp outlines and distinct textures that match the original object. This opti cal property of the cinema creates variations in depth of field through shallow focus, deep focus, and techniques such as racking focus. (Film Analysis Guide 2008) The sharpness of an image in a film gives the viewer an eye shot of the main subject. Through focus we can also interpret and analyze film since we are given enough ikon of the scenes and we feel the intense feeling of the characters using this technique. Rocking focus makes us feel the thrill during chase scenes between the killers and the main character. Editing After shooting the entire film, clips are gathered and series of shots are combined in a single filmstrip. Here the sequence of scenes are added with transitions and uses cuts to remove unnecessary scenes.Hard to arrive at effects which cannot be provided by means of humanistic approach is enhanced and produced by editing to give film a more enticing effect. Magics and special(a) effects are added to make films more appealing. Hence this also helps us to inte rpret and analyze movies sometimes if a film is easily cut without giving further ado to the audience it may result negatively on the end of the audience because it was edited but with bad quality. Sound and Light cause In cinemas, sounds in films does not necessarily need to match the scenes or it needs to be continuous.Sound can also be used to present events from earlier in the story. (Film Analysis Guide 2008). It gives viewers interpretation of what that scene is for base on the type of songs that is played during a particular scene. Lights also gives us predicaments as to what is really happening on that particular scene. Like on love scenes lights are always darker and mostly turned off in many movies. While Enhanced light which almost blinds the viewers are provided if there are scenes of triumphs and enjoyment. Ideology and Interpretation of FilmsAfter the given terms and interpretation of film above, We have come to understand films as artificial constructions that are pieced together by filmmakers, we can more easily begin to ask questions about the ideological agenda of a film what values it promotes. Because films are cultural products shaped by the historical context of their making they can tell us much about the values and commitments of their makers and their audiences. An ideological analysis of a film that appeals to a viewer can also tell about a great struggle on ones own conscious or unconscious values.(Mast, 2008) I believe that the real criteria in evaluating an interpreting a movie is by analyzing not only its components in the technical terms of movie analysis but how it appeals to our consciousness and sensitivity as an individual. Our Values and Social responsibility as impacted by the type of film that weve watched. So that later on we will drop comments like boring and OK and use more helpful address like how the film reinforces you as an individual and how it challenges an assumption regarding a particular topic.Instead of dismissing films because they are slow-paced or follow unfamiliar plots or include unusual characters, it may be more inspiring and personally transformative to ask what surprised you about these films and why. For these Studies in Cinema films, in short, it will be worthwhile to move beyond the question How did I feel? to the more difficult question What do I think? (Mast, 2008) There are some films that makes viewer easily understand bodies of literature. Movies like Romeo and Juliet are arranged and scripted in a way that can be easily understood in literal and lay mans term.Unlike the words used in the literary piece it is more innovated in terms of using appropriate words and drops off words that are hard to understand by viewers.ReferenceFilm Analysis Guide (2008). Yale Film Studies Website. Retrieved January 15, 2008 from http//classes. yale. edu/film-analysis/ Kolker, Robert (1999). Film, Form and Culture. McGraw Hill College, p. 33. Mast, Gerald J. Biesecker (2008). How t o Watch Movies Intelligently. Retrieved January 15, 2008 from http//www. bluffton. edu/mastg/Watchingmovies. htm
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Mediterranean society, a name manifesting proximity to Mediterranean Sea, flourished near 6th century BC and was dominated in its early years by Greek and Roman influence. Greek and Roman periods came sequentially and at times are collectively referred as Greco-Roman. This influence not only defined characteristics of Mediterranean society for m some(prenominal) centuries that follow but also had articulate influences on contemporary societies in westward world. Similarities between Greeks and RomansBoth Greeks and Romans developed art with their own peculiarities. Forms of art like poetry, drama, mythology, philosophy and architecture defined these purifications. These contributions are now also known as classical antiquity in history which Mediterranean society enjoyed during Greco-Roman period. Greeks and Romans also had strong military legacies. They both military might to counter any threat against their way of life. Romans also developed a strong naval legion which helped th em strengthen their empires.Both Greeks and Romans developed agriculture with a focus on its commercial side and promoted trade. In religion, both did not enforce a universal religion instead promoted concept of tolerating other religious beliefs. Differences between Greeks and Romans Although historians at times refer to Greek and Roman periods in Mediterranean societys history collectively, both have some clear differences in get on to society and governance. Greek culture is to a greater extent towards lifestyle and seems to be more focused on development of a society.On the other hand, Roman civilization was oriented towards creating an empire of which Mediterranean region and society was a part. So, while Greeks had more cultural impact on Mediterranean society, Roman influence was more towards developing governance and systems. Politically, Greeks had a decentralized form of government with many city-states flourishing during their period. On the contrary, Romans developed an empire while developing less main(a) cities and more focus on creating specialized regions.Romans also were more focused on enhancing their empire while maintaining a strong linkage with developed transportation system networks and administrative control. While Greeks gave Mediterranean society the philosophical works of Plato and Socrates, it was Romans who gave concept of governance, including civil service, public administration and tax collection. Greco-Roman influence on occidental world Modern day politics has always been influenced by Greco-Roman influence on Mediterranean society.A broader case in point would be that modern political systems prevailing in many western countries mirror key elements from Greco-Roman period of Mediterranean. Roman concept of senate and Greek idea of city-state is sprawled around the globe as political systems. Further, concept of constitution and republic instigated in thoughts of Greek philosophers and was later materialized in Roman Empir e. So much so, there is an matter to presence of various elements in modern constitutions, which arguably were formulated by Greco-Roman.For instance, in linked States constitution, President can only be a citizen born(p) on American soil. This is akin to Roman concept of citizenship in which citizens having full rights were free, naturally-born, land-owning individuals. In art, contemporary art has genesis in Greco-Roman influence on Mediterranean world. For instance, architectural concept of Corinthian, Ionic or Doric columns which was developed in Greco-Roman period is basis of classical architecture in western world.In order to govern a vast empire, Romans developed concept of public administration not known to human civilization and also created an all-embracing civil service and formalized methods of tax collection. These innovative concepts can still be found in Western world. Conclusion Greco-Roman influence on Mediterranean society had strong impact on human civilizati on. Both had differences but of lesser depth compared to strong similarities which existed in both civilizations. This is one of the reasons that for greenness understanding Greeks and Roman civilizations exist collectively in history under the label Greco-Roman.Bibliography Bentley, J. H. , Ziegler, H. F. , & Salter, H. S. (2010). Traditions & Encounters A Brief Global History (2nd Edition ed. ). Virginia, United States of America McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. Pomeroy, S. B. , Burstein, S. M. , Donlan, W. , & Roberts, J. T. (2007). Ancient Greece A Political, Social and Cultural History. USA Oxford University Press. Stearns, P. N. , Adas, M. B. , Gilbert, M. J. , & Schwartz, S. B. (2010). World Civilizations The Global Experience. Prentice Hall.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Charity business has been an important part in English civil ships company through 400 years development. This article alms to introduce two leading charities organisations In UK the National commit and the Royal 3ritlsh Legion, and to research how they shape and reflect the UK culture. 2. The National assumption and UK Culture This section introduces the definition of the National Trust and states how it shapes and reflects uK culture trom three aspects. 2. 1 3ackground of the National Trust The National Trust was founded in 1895 as a charity body, independent of the UK government.Its mission is to prevent the nation of lands and tenements (including uildings) of beauty or historic interest In perpetuity for the benefit of society (Lansley, 1996 227). The National Trust has been one of the biggest environmental organizations In the world through hundreds development. It raises money heavily on the support of its members, visitors, donors and partners. The membership fee accounts largely in the total amount. The memberships numbers game ot the national trust were 7,000 people in 1945, and it increased rapidly to 220,000 people in 1970.After that, the amount of memberships doubled every ten years. In 201 1, membership enlisting had reached the number of 3. million (National Trust, 2010/2011 2). Besides the huge number of memberships, it has a large number of volunteers. As the National Trust motto said No volunteers, No Nauonal Trust. From housing repair to gardens management, customers service or cultural relics introduce, volunteers play an important role in the National Trust. From a recent statistic, the volunteers numbers subscribe to reached 67,000 in the year of 201 1 (National Trust, 201112012 6). 2 The influences of National Trust to UK culture The National Trust has an Influence to UK culture from the following aspects nvironment protection, citizen awareness, and life enrichment. Firstly, the huge victory of the National Trust In environment co nservation shapes the uK culture deeply. The responsibility of Trust mainly reflected in protection of country land, coastline and historical culture relics
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Introduction world(prenominal)ization washbasinnot be merely described as a one-time event. Neither can it be defined as a pure passing fad nor a made-up term invented by various economic experts. globalization is a social experience that has been predicted and expected to occur at the turn of the century. In recent years, it can be observed that not a single mean solar day pass by wherein globalizations pack effects and impacts are not felt. concord to Mishkin (2006), the plain and simple act of consuming foreign goods is already reflective of globalizations power and influence. Globalizations massive scope and reach get on increase with the aid of highly modernized and train technological materials that are genuinely much capable of breaking the barriers of space and time. Apparently, the global village that was once espoused by the renowned technological determinist, Marsh wholly McLuhan is nimble becoming a reality (Garson, 2006). Individuals, regardless of their age, socialization, career and social class become connected in this seemingly borderless indian lodge. But while a borderless society may seem to be beneficial to the growth of commerce and trade, geographys untimely dying (Murray, 2006) is clouded with doubts and animosity. Globalization thus presents a double-edged sword wherein its consequences can be either beneficial or detrimental (Collier, 2007). While globalization may actu in ally trigger the rise of different appear markets, which, in turn would lead to an increase of employment opportunities and product creationthese scenarios are perceived by globalization critics and detractors as yet another expression of widening the economic gap among the rich and the poor.The destruction of geographical parameters enables transnational corporations to easily penetrate poverty-stricken communities with promises of wealth and prosperity. However, on a deeper contextualization of the matter, the luxury and abundance are no less tha n myths. Realistically speaking, globalization articulates the inescapably and demands of a capitalistic system that blatantly thrive on exploitation and tinny labor. Globalizations seemingly capitalistic nature as well as its wide scope and reach are some of the reasons behind its refinement association to imperialism. Going back to historical discourses it can be seen that imperialism began in an era wherein land explorations and discoveries were rampant. However, it is also important to note that imperialism in the earlier age was not merely concerned on unraveling new domains and territories.A grand with it was the aim to conquer and rule over newly discovered lands and communities, which in turn resulted to territorial disputes and conflicts between Spain and Portugal. The success of each and every exploration equates to having greater chances or possibilities for geographical and economic expansion. The kingdom with the most number of colonies can readily use the latters natural resources and labor forces. Natives are subject to harsh working conditions in order to feed the colonizers economy. Under these circumstances, indeed, the overt parallelism between globalization and imperialism is very much manifested. Globalization is imperialism redefined. Globalization is imperialism that operates and expands at a faster pace to begin with because it is highly supported by modern technology and communication channels (Janssens, 2004). Empires are continuously established by ruling parties.This is despite of Negri and Hardts assertion that Empires are different from conventional imperialism wherein the latter needs to distinguish a concrete spatial scope and range, while Empires are basically decentralized and deterritorialized (Held & McGrew, 2007). Based from a critical perspective, the ideological connotations and underpinnings of globalization, imperialism and Empires of Hardt and Negri are all the same, except for the whoresons used for expansio n and the degree or speed wherein expansion materializes.Cultural Imperialism As globalization or imperialism for that matter, continues to disguise as a world(a) economic approach that seeks growth and development among participating nations, another dilemma occurs. This is something that goes beyond the unequal distribution of wealth and massive exploitation of the workers. As the twit for economic prosperity goes on, globalization has also permeated the heathenish boundaries and slowly transformed as an impending threat to timeless beliefs, customs and traditions.Ancient practices that have a bun in the oven been long kept and preserved by various indigenous groups are slowly eradicated and given derogatory treatments for much(prenominal) are viewed as no longer relevant or valuable within the context of highly modernized and digital world. This unfortunate situation thus places marginalized groups into very uncompromising situations. Indigenous groups are go on pushed int o the periphery. The so-called globalization of culture (Inda & Rosaldo, 2008), which, ideally, should parent matchnce and connectedness is no less than a strong manifestation of ethnic imperialism. There are ternion aspects that highly characterize or define the mechanisms of cultural imperialism (Hesmondhalgh, 2002). First, on that point is an apparent overflow of cultural products that are mostly derived from the West (Hesmondhalgh, 2002). These cultural products, are systematically enforced or spoon-fed to other cultures (Hesmondhalgh, 2002).Since cultural products are widely disseminated and seemingly forced into non-western communities, cultural imperialism thus opens the possibility of cultural homogenization (Hesmondhalgh, 2002). Lastly, the outcomes or consequences of cultural imperialism result to the death of indigenous cultures (Hersmondhalgh, 2002). Given this situation at hand, Sztompka (1993) expressed that cultural imperialism is most likely to affect or influe nce indigenous groups set(p) in communities that have had their own share of their colonial experience. While this discussion sees the importance of sharing the practices of indigenous groups for the sake of awareness and preservation, these aspects become endangered as globalization enters into the limelight. The aim for awareness transforms into close-minded stereotypical views and preservation turns into total eradication.Death of the native tongue Golding and Harris (1997) discussed that imperialism greatly impacts the use of language. In as utmost as globalization and imperialism is concerned, the massive utilization of the English language cannot be merely attributed to the fact that it is the so-called international lingua franca (Thomason, 2007). Rather, on a hand-to-hand look, it is an overt manifestation of western dominance and hegemony that readily jeopardizes language multiplicity (Tomlinson, 1999). Held (2000) shared that much of the valuable in formation is written in English. Likewise, such(prenominal) has been the primary medium for instruction in the academe and is very much employed in business communication.In as far as ethnical minorities are concerned, globalizations emphasis on modernity and connectedness forces the former to learn and use the language (English) to ensure and maintain their global competitiveness. Although appropriations have been made by topical anesthetic or non-western cultures, such as Spanglish (Spanish and English) or Hinglish (Hindi and English) (Christensen & Levinson, 2003), for example, appropriations seem to miss the larger picture. Appropriations can be viewed as a direct insult to other languages, for it implies the inability of non-western languages to ascertain competitive advantage not unless they operate under the shadows of the English language. Since many individuals utilize English, minority groups are further marginalized. Its small size cannot possibly go against the majority.Take for example th e case Native Americans, the Navajos, which are surprisingly alienated in their own domains primarily because there language orientation differs from the large number of the populace (Baker, 2001). The incorporation of English in Malawis curricula also created adverse effects in one of ethnic groups, Lomwe, wherein, the number of its native speaker has experienced a considerable decline (Kaplan & Baldauf, 1999). Obviously, such situations do not merely exemplify language dominance.More than anything else, such readily projects cultural homogenizationone of the most important determinants of cultural imperialism and / or globalization. Cultural homogenization encourages the rise of a global culture wherein issues of race and ethnicity are no longer deemed important. Consequently in order for a global culture to materialize, there is a strong need for participating entities to converge and interact via a common languagewhich in reality, does not really upholds equality but a plain an d pure reiteration of western interests.Global AmericanizationOn the other hand, globalization is also perceived by experts as the seemingly tyrannical assertion of Westernor to be more exact, American culture (Horton & Patapan, 2004). This occurs as cultural products in the form of art, music, film, lifestyle etc. continues to infiltrate different communities (Pearson & Simpson, 2004). Although cultural sharing and transmission are very common, the business with this set-up is that it tacitly imposes the American way of life and perspective, with a total disregard to ethnic roots and practices. This process is described by Pearson and Simpson (2004) as Americanization.Americanization further threatens non-western cultures primarily because it is aided by mass media. The diffusion of values, customs and beliefs rapidly occurs. Basically, Americanization greatly affects and influences the ideological stance of indigenous groups as they are constantly bombarded by images that promote and uphold the grandiosity of the American life.The frequent exposure of natives to western thoughts and ideas can readily affect their views regarding the practices of their respective ethnic groups. As the agenda-setting theory purports, mass media is very much capable of shaping ones views and impose which topics should be deemed important or not (Woodward, 2007). Mass media, under the context of Americanization also operates as a tool for biased and stereotype representations of other cultures.Hollywood for example, is known for its seemingly impartial portrayal of Asians. More often than not, individuals with Asian descents, or to be more ad hocChinese are often presented as villains in many films (Benshoff & Griffin, 2004). Likewise, Hollywood has also managed to dominate the movie industry of other countries, thus bringing death to local films.Compared to Indias Bollywood, it can be seen that in terms of the number of movies produced, the former readily outnumbers Hollywood (Wasko, 2003). However, since Hollywood has already established itself as the picture of high quality films, this basically contributes to the decreasing appeal of Indian-made or Asian-made films. In addition to that, the seemingly negative public opinions attributed to Asians have readily prevented individuals from patronizing not only Bollywood, but also films which are outside the Hollywood enclave.The above-mentioned situation readily impacts the perception of Asians regarding the value and importance of their historical roots. This is most especially admittedly as for the case of individuals whose parents have different ethnic origins. Affected parties are trapped in a situation wherein they have to choose and decide which culture is more superior and which cultural practices should be readily exercised.The matter becomes even more complicated as Americanization leads to intense consumerism of Western products which delimits the role played by local producers. According to Lockard (1998), consumerism is the result of the overlapping segments of both economic and cultural imperialism. Economically speaking, transnational companies Andersen and Gray (2008) implied that commodities such as food and dresses can spay the individuals attitudes and orientations. Take for example, the case of fast food chains that have emerged in non-Western countries, which, in return, gave birth to a fast-food culture that readily upholds the notion that western products represent progress and modernity (Allen, Albala & Nestle, 2007).The corresponding effect of this is that fast-food culture has transformed the ways wherein food is served and prepared. Those that do not adhere to the practices of fast-food culture are immediately dismissed as way too traditional (Allen, Albala & Nestle, 2007). Allen, Albala and Neslte (2007) mentioned that such scenario has readily taken the attention of concerned parties from China, Mexico and even a progressive surface area such as Fran ce. The noise created by the growing fast-food culture expresses high tendencies of devouring not only the local practices of non-western communities, but also the survival of local individuals that rely on such industry.In the meantime, the apparent decline of musical traditions and oral lore in the Igorot (a Philippine tribe) also signifies the adverse effects of consumerism. According to Reyes (cited in Craig and King, 2002), the introduction of radio in the early 70s exposed the youth western popular music that they can enjoy on a workaday basis via purchasing the cassette tapes of their favorite western artists.This situation prevented many Igorots, most especially, the younger generation from taking some time to produce songs, most especially during memorable or special events (Reyes cited in Craig & King, 2002). Since youngsters are bombarded with pre-packaged music, they no longer need to exert extra effort in song making for all they have to do is purchase a copy of their favorite artists and push the play button.The problem with the consumerist approach of Americanization is that it forces indigenous cultures to believe that they actually need the cultural products that are being offered to them. Americanization tends to create false needs in order to serve the western interest. SinceConclusion Indeed, undoubtedly globalization and imperialism are the same. It subdues both the economic and cultural aspects of indigenous and non-western cultures by using the idea of progress and modernity as a disguise or as a defense.With the availability of sophisticated technology, globalization or imperialism spread much faster thus bringing death to historical practices and customs. Globalization or imperialism also results to identity problems and further marginalization of ethnic groups. The consumer-driven approach have totally bastardized and transformed the cultural expression of indigenous groups into mere commodities that readily lack the artistry and in tricacies of traditional kit and boodle via standardization.ReferencesAllen, G Albala, K. and Nestle, M. (2007). The Business of Food. Westport, CT Greenwood Publishing Inc.Andersen, R. and Gray, J. (2008). Battleground The Media. Westport, CT Greenwood Publishing Inc.Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon Multilingual Matters Ltd.Benshoff, H. and Griffin, S (2004). America on Film Representing Race, Class, sex and Sexuality at the Movies. Malden, USA Blackwell PublishingChristensen, D. and Levinson, D. (Eds). (2003). Encyclopedia of Community. California sage-green Publications Inc.Collier, P. (2007). The Bottom Billion. New York Oxford University Press Inc.Garson, G. (2006). Public Information Technology and E-governance. Canada Jones and Bartlett PublishersGolding, P. and Harris, P. (1997). beyond Cultural ImperialismHeld, D. and McGrew A. (2007). Globalization/ Anti-Globalization Beyond the Great Divide. Cambridge Polity PressHersmond halgh, D. (2002). The Cultural Industries. London Sage Publications Ltd.Horton, K. and Patapan, H. (2004). Globalisation and Equality. London RoutledgeInda, J. and Rosaldo, R. (2008). The Anthropology of Globalization. Malden, MA Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Janssens, R. 2004. Of Mice and Men American Imperialism and American Studies. Netherlands Amsterdam University PressKaplan, R. and Baldouf, R. (1999). Language Planning in Malawi, Mozambique and the Philippines. Clevedon Multilingual Matters Ltd.Lockard, C. (1998). Dance of Life. USA University of Hawaii PressMishkin, F. (2006). The Next Great Globalization. New tee shirt Princeton University PressMurray, W. (2006). Geographies of Globalization. New York RoutledgePearson, R. and Simpson, P. (2001). Critical Dictionary of Film, Television and Theory. London RoutledgeReyes, M. (2002). Under Attack Mass Media Technology and Indigenous Musical Practices in the Philippines. In T. Craig, & R. King, (Eds.). Global goes Local Popular Cul ture in Asia (pp. 40-56). Hong Kong Hong Kong University Press.Sztompka, P. (1993). The Sociology of Social Change. Oxford Blackwell PublishersThomason, S. (2001). Language Contact An Introduction. Edinburgh Edinburgh University PressTomlinson, J. (1999). Globalization and Culture. Chicago University of Chicago PressWasko, J. (2003). How Hollywood Works. London Sage Publications LtdWoodward, G. (2007). Center Stage. Maryland Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.