Saturday, August 31, 2019
I remember going to parties in the late 1970s, and, if you wanted to have a civilized conversation, you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually say that you worked for British Airways, because it got you talking about peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s last travel experience, which was usually an unpleasant one. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s staggering how much the airlineÃ¢â¬â¢s image has changed since then, and, in comparison, how proud staff are of working for BA today. British Airways employee, Spring 1990 I recently flew business class on British Airways for the first time in about 10 years. What has happened over that time is amazing. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t tell you how my memory of British Airways as a company and the experience I had 10 years ago contrasts with today. The improvement in service is truly remarkable. British Airways customer, Fall 1989 In June of 1990, British Airways reported its third consecutive year of record profits, Ã £345 million before taxes, firmly establishing the rejuvenated carrier as one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most profitable airlines. The impressive financial results were one indication that BA had convincingly shed its historic Ã¢â¬Å"bloody awfulÃ¢â¬ image. In October of 1989, one respected American publication referred to them as Ã¢â¬Å"bloody awesome,Ã¢â¬ a description most would not have thought possible after pre-tax losses totalling more than Ã £240 million in the years 1981 and 1982. Productivity had risen more than 67 percent over the course of the 1980s. Passengers reacted highly favorably to the changes. After suffering through years of poor market perception during the 1970s and before, BA garnered four Airline of the Year awards during the 1980s, as voted by the readers of First Executive Travel. In 1990, the leading American aviation magazine, Air Transport World, selected BA as the winner of its Passenger Service award. In the span of a decade, British Airways had radically improved its financial strength, convinced its work force of the paramount importance of customer service, and dramatically improved its perception in the market. Culminating in the privatization of 1987, the carrier had undergone fundamental change through a series of important messages and events. With unprecedented success under its belt, management faced an increasingly perplexing problem: how to maintain momentum and recapture the focus that would allow them to meet new challenges. Crisis of 1981 Record profits must have seemed distant in 1981. On September 10 of that year, then chief executive Roy Watts issued a special bulletin to British Airways staff: British Airways is facing the worst crisis in its history . . . unless we take swift and remedial action we are heading for a loss of at least Ã £100 million in the present financial year. We face the prospect that by next April we shall have piled up losses of close to Ã £250 million in two years. Even as I write to you, our money is draining at the rate of nearly Ã £200 a minute. No business can survive losses on this scale. Unless we take decisive action now, there is a real possibility that British Airways will go out of business for lack of money. We have to cut our costs sharply, and we have to cut them fast. We have no more choice, and no more time . Just two years earlier, an optimistic British government had announced its plan to privatize British Airways through a sale of shares to the investing public. Although airline management recognized that the 58,000 staff was too large, they expected increased passenger volumes and improved staff productivity to help them avoid complicated and costly employee reductions. While the 1978-79 plan forecasted passenger traffic growth at 8 to 10 percent, an unexpected recession left BA struggling to survive on volumes, which, instead, decreased by more that 4 percent. A diverse and aging fleet, increased fuel costs, and the high staffing costs forced the government and BA to put privatization on hold indefinitely. With the airline technically bankrupt, BA management and the government would have to wait before the public would be ready to embrace the ailing airline. The BA Culture, 1960-1980 British Airways stumbled into its 1979 state of inefficiency in large part because of its history and culture. In August 1971, the Civil Aviation Act became law, setting the stage for the British Airways Board to assume control of two state-run airlines, British European Airways (BEA) and British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), under the name British Airways. In theory, the board was to control policy over British Airways; but, in practice, BEA and BOAC remained autonomous, each with its own chairman, board, and chief executive. In 1974, BOAC and BEA finally issued one consolidated financial report. In 1976, Sir Frank (later Lord) McFadzean replaced the group division with a structure based on functional divisions to officially integrate the divisions into one airline. Still, a distinct split within British Airways persisted throughout the 1970s and into the mid-1980s. After the Second World War, BEA helped pioneer European civil aviation. As a pioneer, it concerned itself more with building an airline infrastructure than it did with profit. As a 20-year veteran and company director noted: Ã¢â¬Å"The BEA culture was very much driven by building something that did not exist. They had built that in 15 years, up until 1960. Almost single-handedly they opened up air transport in Europe after the war. That had been about getting the thing established. The marketplace was taking care of itself. They wanted to get the network to work, to get stations opened up.Ã¢â¬ BOAC had also done its share of pioneering, making history on May 2, 1952, by sending its first jet airliner on a trip from London to Johannesburg, officially initiating jet passenger service. Such innovation was not without cost, however, and BOAC found itself mired in financial woes throughout the two decades following the war. As chairman Sir Matthew Slattery explained in 1962: Ã¢â¬Å"The Corporation has had to pay a heavy price for pioneering advanced technologies.Ã¢â¬ Success to most involved with BEA and BOAC in the 1950s and 1960s had less to do with net income and more to do with Ã¢â¬Å"flying the British flag.Ã¢â¬ Having inherited numerous war veterans, both airlines had been injected with a military mentality. These values combined with the years BEA and BOAC existed as government agencies to shape the way British Airways would view profit through the 1970s. As former director of human resources Nick Georgiades said of the military and civil service history: Ã¢â¬Å"Put those two together and you had an organization that believed its job was simply to get an aircraft into the air on time and to get it down on time.Ã¢â¬ While government support reinforced the operational culture, a deceiving string of profitable years in the 1970s made it even easier for British Airways to neglect its increasing inefficiencies. Between 1972 and 1980, BA earned a profit before interest and tax in each year except for one. Ã¢â¬Å"This was significant, not least because as long as the airline was returning profits, it was not easy to persuade the workforce, or the management for that matter, the fundamental changes were vital. Minimizing cost to the state became the standard by which BA measured itself. As one senior manager noted: Ã¢â¬Å"Productivity was not an issue. People were operating effectively, not necessarily efficiently. There were a lot of people doing other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s jobs, and there were a lot of people checking on people doing other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s jobsÃ¢â¬ . . . As a civil service agency, the airline was allowed to become inefficient because the thinking in state-run operations was, Ã¢â¬Å"If yo uÃ¢â¬â¢re providing service at no cost to the taxpayer, then youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing quite well.Ã¢â¬ A lack of economies of scale and strong residual loyalties upon the merger further complicated the historical disregard for efficiency by BEA and BOAC. Until Sir Frank McFadzeanÃ¢â¬â¢s reorganization in 1976, British Airways had labored under several separate organizations (BOAC; BEA European, Regional, Scottish, and Channel) so the desired benefits of consolidation had been squandered. Despite operating under the same banner, the organization consisted more or less of separate airlines carrying the associated costs of such a structure. Even after the reorganization, divisional loyalties prevented the carrier from attaining a common focus. Ã¢â¬Å"The 1974 amalgamation of BOAC with the domestic and European divisions of BEA had produced a hybrid racked with management demarcation squabbles. The competitive advantages sought through the merger had been hopelessly defeated by the lack of a unifying corporate culture.Ã¢â¬ A BA director summed up how distracting the merger proved: Ã¢â¬Å"There wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough management time devoted to managing the changing environment because it was all focused inwardly on resolving industrial relations problems, on resolving organizational conflicts. How do you bring these very, very different cultures together?Ã¢â¬ Productivity at BA in the 1970s was strikingly bad, especially in contrast to other leading foreign airlines. BAÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity for the three years ending March 31, 1974, 1975, and 1976 had never exceeded 59 percent of that of the average of the other eight foreign airline leaders. Service suffered as well. One human resources senior manager recalled the Ã¢â¬Å"awfulÃ¢â¬ service during her early years in passenger services: Ã¢â¬Å"I remember 10 years ago standing at the gate handing out boxes of food to people as they got on the aircraft. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how we dealt with service.Ã¢â¬ With increasing competition and rising costs of labor in Britain in the late 1970s, the lack of productivity and poor service was becoming increasingly harmful. By the summer of 1979, the number of employees had climbed to a peak of 58,000. The problems became dangerous when BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s worst recession in 50 years reduced passenger numbers and raised fuel costs substantially. Lord King Takes the Reins Sir John (later Lord) King was appointed chairman in February of 1981, just a half-year before Roy WattsÃ¢â¬â¢s unambiguously grim assessment of BAÃ¢â¬â¢s financial state. King brought to British Airways a successful history of business ventures and strong ties to both the government and business communities. Despite having no formal engineering qualifications, King formed Ferrybridge Industries in 1945, a company which found an unexploited niche in the ball-bearing industry. Later renamed the Pollard Ball and Roller Bearing Company, Ltd., KingÃ¢â¬â¢s company was highly successful until he sold it in 1969. In 1970, he joined Babcock International and as chairman led it through a successful restructuring during the 1970s. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s connections were legendary. Hand-picked by Margaret Thatcher to run BA, KingÃ¢â¬â¢s close friends included Lord Hanson of Hanson Trust and the Princess of WalesÃ¢â¬â¢s family. He also knew personally Presidents Reagan and Carter. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s respect and connections proved helpful both in recruiting and in his dealings with the British government. One director spoke of the significance of KingÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment: Ã¢â¬Å"British Airways needed a chairman who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need a job. We needed someone who could see that the only way to do this sort of thing was radically, and who would be aware enough of how you bring that about.Ã¢â¬ In his first annual report, King predicted hard times for the troubled carrier. Ã¢â¬Å"I would have been comforted by the thought that the worst was behind us. There is no certainty that this is so.Ã¢â¬ Upon WattsÃ¢â¬â¢s announcement in September of 1981, he and King launched their Survival planÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"tough, unpalatable and immediate measuresÃ¢â¬ to stem the spiraling losses and save the airline from bankruptcy. The radical steps included reducing staff numbers from 52,000 to 43,000, or 20 percent, in just nine months; freezing pay increases for a year; and closing 16 routes, eight on-line stations, and two engineering bases. It also dictated halting cargo-only services and selling the fleet, and inflicting massive cuts upon offices, administrative services, and staff clubs. In June of 1982, BA management appended the Survival plan to accommodate the reduction of another 7,000 staff, which would eventually bring the total employees down from about 42,000 to nearly 35,000. BA accomplished its reductions through voluntary measures, offering such generous severance that they ended up with more volunteers than necessary. In total, the airline dished out some Ã £150 million in severance pay. Between 1981 and 1983, BA reduced its staff by about a quarter. About the time of the Survival plan revision, King brought in Gordon Dunlop, a Scottish accountant described by one journalist as Ã¢â¬Å"imaginative, dynamic, and extremely hardworking,Ã¢â¬ euphemistically known on Fleet Street as Ã¢â¬Å"forceful,Ã¢â¬ and considered by King as simply Ã¢â¬Å"outstanding.Ã¢â¬ As CFO, DunlopÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to the recovery years was significant. When the results for the year ending March 31, 1982, were announced in October, he and the board ensured 1982 would be a watershed year in BAÃ¢â¬â¢s turnaround. Using creative financing, Dunlop wrote down Ã £100 million for redundancy costs, Ã £208 million for the value of the fleet (which would ease depreciation in future years), even an additional Ã £98 million for the 7,000 redundancies which had yet to be effected. For the year, the loss before taxes amounted to Ã £114 million. After taxes and extraordinary items, it totalled a staggering Ã £545 million. Even King might have admitted that the worst was behind them after such a report. The chairman immediately turned his attention to changing the airlineÃ¢â¬â¢s image and further building his turnaround team. On September 13, 1982, King relieved Foote, Cone & Belding of its 36-year-old advertising account with BA, replacing it with Saatchi & Saatchi. One of the biggest account changes in British history, it was KingÃ¢â¬â¢s way of making a clear statement that the BA direction had changed. In April of 1983, British Airways launched its Ã¢â¬Å"Manhattan LandingÃ¢â¬ campaign. King and his staff sent BA management personal invitations to gather employees and tune in to the inaugural six-minute commercial. Overseas, each BA office was sent a copy of the commercial on videocassette, and many held cocktail parties to celebrate the new thrust. Ã¢â¬Å"Manhattan LandingÃ¢â¬ dramatically portrayed the whole island of Manhattan being lifted from North America and whirled over the Atlantic before awestruck witnesses in the U.K. After the initial airing, a massive campaign was run with a 90-second version of the commercial. The ad marked the beginning of a broader campaign, Ã¢â¬Å"The WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Favourite Airline,Ã¢â¬ reflective of BAÃ¢â¬â¢s status as carrier of the most passengers internationally. With the financial picture finally brightening, BA raised its advertising budget for 1983-84 to Ã £31 million, compared with Ã £19 million the previous year, signalling a clear commitment to changing the corporate image. Colin Marshall Becomes Chief Executive In the midst of the Saatchi & Saatchi launch, King recruited Mr. (later Sir) Colin Marshall, who proved to be perhaps the single most important person in the changes at British Airways. Appointed chief executive in February 1983, Marshall brought to he airline a unique resume. He began his career as a management trainee with Hertz in the United States. After working his way up the Hertz hierarchy in North America, Marshall accepted a job in 1964 to run rival AvisÃ¢â¬â¢s operations in Europe. By 1976, the British-born businessman had risen to chief executive of Avis. In 1981, he returned to the U.K. as deputy chief and board member of Sears Holdings. Fulfilling one of his ultimate career ambitions, he took over as chief executive of British Airways in early 1983. Although having no direct experience in airline management, Marshall brought with him two tremendous advantages. First, he understood customer service, and second, he had worked with a set of customers quite similar to the airline travel segment during his car rental days. Marshall made customer service a personal crusade from the day he entered BA. One executive reported: Ã¢â¬Å"It was really Marshall focusing on nothing else. The one thing that had overriding attention the first three years he was here was customer service, customer service, customer serviceÃ¢â¬ânothing else. That was the only thing he was interested in, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not an exaggeration to say that was his exclusive focus.Ã¢â¬ Another senior manager added: Ã¢â¬Å"He has certainly put an enabling culture in place to allow customer service to come out, where, rather than people waiting to be told what to do to do things better, itÃ¢â¬â¢s an environment where people feel they can actually come out with ideas, that they will be listened to, and feel they are much more a part of the success of the company.Ã¢â¬ Not just a strong verbal communicator, Marshall became an active role model in the terminals, spending time with staff during morning and evenings. He combined these a ctions with a number of important events to drive home the customer service message. Corporate Celebrations, 1983-1987 If Marshall was the most important player in emphasizing customer service, then the Putting People First (PPF) program was the most important event. BA introduced PPF to the front-line staff in December of 1983 and continued it through June of 1984. Run by the Danish firm Time Manager International, each program cycle lasted two days and included 150 participants. The program was so warmly received that the non-front-line employees eventually asked to be included, and a one-day Ã¢â¬Å"PPF IIÃ¢â¬ program facilitated the participation of all BA employees through June 1985. Approximately 40,000 BA employees went through the PPF programs. The program urged participants to examine their interactions with other people, including family, friends, and, by association, customers. Its acceptance and impact was extraordinary, due primarily to the honesty of its message, the excellence of its delivery, and the strong support of management. Employees agreed almost unanimously that the programÃ¢â¬â¢s message was sincere and free from manipulation, due in some measure to the fact that BA separated itself from the programÃ¢â¬â¢s design. The program emphasized positive relations with people in general, focusing in large part on non-work-related relationships. Implied in the positive relationship message was an emphasis on customer service, but the program was careful to aim for the benefit of employees as individuals first. Employees expressed their pleasure on being treated with respect and relief that change was on the horizon. As one frontline ticket agent veteran said: Ã¢â¬Å"I found it fascinating, very, very enjoyable. I thought it was very good for British Airways. It made people aware. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think people give enough thought to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to each other. . . . It was hardhitting. It was made something really special. When you were there, you were treated extremely well. You were treated as a VIP, and people really enjoyed that. It was reverse roles, really, to the job we do.Ã¢â¬ A senior manager spoke of the confidence it promoted in the changes: Ã¢â¬Å"It was quite a revelation, and I thought it was absolutely wonderful. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe BA had finally woken and realized where its bread was buttered. There were a lot of cynics at the time, but for people like myself it was really great to suddenly realize you were working for an airline that had the guts to chan ge, and that itÃ¢â¬â¢s probably somewhere where you want to stay.Ã¢â¬ Although occasionally an employee felt uncomfortable with the Ã¢â¬Å"rah-rahÃ¢â¬ nature of the program, feeling it perhaps Ã¢â¬Å"too American,Ã¢â¬ in general, PPF managed to eliminate cynicism. The excellence in presentation helped signify a sincerity to the message. One senior manager expressed the consistency. Ã¢â¬Å"There was a match between the message and the delivery. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t get away with saying putting people first is important, if in the process of delivering that message you donÃ¢â¬â¢t put people first.Ã¢â¬ Employees were sent personal invitations, thousands were flown in from around the world, and a strong effort was made to prepare tasteful meals and treat everyone with respect. Just as important, BA released every employee for the program, and expected everyone to attend. Grade differences became irrelevant during PPF, as managers and staff members were treated equally and interacted freely. Moreover, a senior director came to conclude every single PPF session with a question and answer session. Colin Marshall himself frequently attended these closing sessions, answering employee concerns in a manner most felt to be extraordinarily frank. The commitment shown by management helped BA avoid the fate suffered by British Rail in its subsequent attempt at a similar program. The British Railway program suffered a limited budget, a lack of commitment by management and interest by staff, and a high degree of cynicism. Reports surfaced that employees felt the program was a public relations exercise for the outside world, rather than a learning experience for staff. About the time PPF concluded, in 1985, BA launched a program for managers only called, appropriately, Managing People First (MPF). A five-day residential program for 25 managers at a time, MPF stressed the importance of, among other topics, trust, leadership, vision, and feedback. On a smaller scale, MPF stirred up issues long neglected at BA. One senior manager of engineering summarized his experience: Ã¢â¬Å"It was almost as if I were touched on the head. . . . I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think I even considered culture before MPF. Afterwards I began to think about what makes people tick. Why do people do what they do? Why do people come to work? Why do people do things for some people that they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t do for others?Ã¢â¬ Some participants claimed the course led them to put more emphasis on feedback. One reported initiating regular meetings with staff every two weeks, in contrast to before the program when he met with staff members only as problems arose. As Marshall and his team challenged the way people thought at BA, they also encouraged changes in more visible ways. In December 1984, BA unveiled its new fleet livery at Heathrow airport. Preparations for the show were carefully planned and elaborate. The plane was delivered to the hangar-turned-theater under secrecy of night, after which hired audio and video technicians put together a dramatic presentation. On the first night of the show, a darkened coach brought guests from an off-site hotel to an undisclosed part of the city and through a tunnel. The guests, including dignitaries, high-ranking travel executives, and trade union representatives, were left uninformed of their whereabouts. To their surprise, as the show began an aircraft moved through the fog and laser lights decorating the stage and turned, revealing the new look of the British Airways fleet. A similar presentation continued four times a day for eight weeks for all staff to see. On its heels, in May of 1985, British Airways unveiled its new uniforms, designed by Roland Klein. With new leadership, strong communication from the top, increased acceptance by the public, and a new physical image, few on the BA staff could deny in 1985 that his or her working life had turned a new leaf from its condition in 1980. Management attempted to maintain the momentum of its successful programs. Following PPF and MPF, it put on a fairly successful corporatewide program in 1985 called Ã¢â¬Å"A Day in the LifeÃ¢â¬ and another less significant program in 1987 called Ã¢â¬Å"To Be the Best.Ã¢â¬ Inevitably, interest diminished and cynicism grew with successive programs. BA also implemented an Ã¢â¬Å"Awards for ExcellenceÃ¢â¬ program to encourage employee input. Colin Marshall regularly communicated to staff through video. While the programs enjoyed some success, not many employees felt Ã¢â¬Å"touched on the headÃ¢â¬ by any successor program to PPF and MPF.
Friday, August 30, 2019
1.more time: I.T has made it possible for businesses to be open 24/7 all over the globe, making purchases from different countries easier and more convenient.it also means that u can have goods delivered right to your doorstep with having to move a single muscle. 2.bridging the cultural gap: I.T has helped bridge the cultural gap by helping people from different cultures to communicate with one another, and allow the exchange of views and ideas.increasing the awareness and reducing prejudice. 3.communication:communication has become cheaper,quicker and more efficient. we can contact anyone in the word simply by sending them and email or using one of the social networks for almost an instantaneous response.the internet has opened up face to face direct communication from different parts of the world by video conferencing. disadvantages 1.unemployment: while I.T may have streamlined the business process it has also created job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. this means all the middle class jobs have been gotten rid of causing more people to loose their jobs 2.lack of job security: industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue since technology keeps on changing everyday. this means that one has to be in a constant learning mode if he or she wishes to keep their job secure. 3.privacy: though I.T has made communication cheaper,faster and more convenient, it has also brought along some privacy issues.(eg. email hacking) people are now worried about their once private informationÃ becoming puplic knowledge.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
There has been a long-standing debate whether the fate or characteristics of a particular organism or human being is dependent on the environment or its genetic makeup although scientific data collected in recent years point to the interaction between these two. According to experts in the field, the physical, chemical and behavioral properties of a person can be attributed to the interaction between the blueprint which is genetics and the test site which is the environment. Genetic makeup can be considered a blueprint wherein properties regarding growth and development of an organism is stored and copied while environment can be regarded as the actual dynamism of living and nonliving factors that surround and affect the organism. Currently, there are two controversial areas of interest related to nutrition, health and well being, the nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. These two fields involve the study of implications between nutrition, metabolism and genetic mechanisms. Proponents of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics believe that nutrition plays a vital role in the metabolic processes inside the body and that there are specific food and fluids that are appropriate for a particular genetic makeup. This paper aims to differentiate between nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics and their role in the current nutrition research. The goals, applications and implications will be likewise enumerated. In addition current researches that delve into this area will be included to better understand the future and impact of this controversial science. Goals and Implications of Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics According to Mariman (2007) one of the primary goals of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics is to pinpoint nutrient-dependent health characteristics and nutrition-dependent diseases. This revolves on the fact that certain genetic disorders are triggered by particular food or be relieved by certain supplements. These areas on important nutrient-dependent genetic conditions are the ones gaining foremost attention but there are other research fields that are equally important and can be considered part of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. An example is the search for nutritional strategies to prevent or manage overweight or obesity. The purpose is to find food types that can easily induce satiety to affected persons while providing the needed nutrients at the same time. Another example is studying mechanisms involving food fermentation by primitive organisms in the digestive tract and in an artificial condition. Such information will be enlightening regarding better and efficient digestion. The other area connected to nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics concerns food composition and performance of quality assessment by studying the interconnectivity of the proteomic and metabolic pathways that will be explained next (Burton & Stewart, 2004; Mariman, 2007). Undoubtedly, there will be a large impact on the food industry, genetics and disease research all around the world when the direct and exact mechanisms and applications of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics are laid down through scientific and intensive research (Burton & Stewart, 2004). Effects of Nutrient on the Genome, Proteome and Metabolome Nutrition is believed to be influencing the genetic and metabolic makeup of an organism in three basic levels. These are on the level of the genome, proteome and metabolome. Genome is the overall genetic blueprint of an organism. It includes all the genes and other regions of the nucleotide sequences in all the chromosomes that are transferred from the parent to the offspring. According to studies concerning nutrient and genomics, certain genes are either turned on or off by the presence, abundance or absence of a particular nutrient. Severe imbalance in nutrition adversely affects an individual due to the expression of genes that makes that individual susceptible to chronic diseases (Paturel, 2006). According to Paturel (2006), antioxidants are an example of molecular food components that can extensively affect the genome and gene expression of an individual. Certain diseases such as cancer and health conditions such as aging are believed to be associated to the lack of antioxidants in the diet of affected persons. Another very important nutrient that can severely affect the genome is folate. Folate and folic acid, which are forms of vitamin B9, play a very important role in the deoxynucleotide acid (DNA) synthesis, replication and repair. This means that absence of this said nutrient can lead to depletion of genetic material, errors in DNA replication and damage to the genome. This lack of folate in the diet can result to severe healthcare problems such as birth defects and cardiovascular disease among important genetic disorders (Meshkin & Blum, 2007). On the proteome and metabolome level, nutrition also has large impact. An example is the inability to process or digest milk proteins. This condition is attributed to lactose intolerance in persons with disruptions in intestinal enzyme needed to digest dairy products. This condition induces the body to synthesize morphine-like compounds which triggers autism and schizophrenia when absorbed by specific regions of the brain. The goal, therefore, is to design food supplements that would prevent lactose intolerance and consequently prevent autism and schizophrenia (Paturel, 2006). Differences between Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics Nutrigenomics is defined as a set of technological research and applications involving the elucidation of the mechanisms wherein the genetic program functioning in cells and tissues of an organism is supposedly influenced by the organismÃ¢â¬â¢s diet. Muller and Kersten (2003) defines nutrigenomics as the application in nutrition research of high throughput genomics tools by analyzing dietary signals in cells and tissues towards clarification of the impact of nutrition on homeostasis. Simply put, nutrigenomics is the merging of nutritional environment and cellular or genetic functions (Kaput & Rodriguez, 2004). Nutrigenetics, on the other hand, is the use of genetic variation data correlated with dietary health risks. Nutrigenetics is based on the assumption that there is genetic variation in human populations and that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s response to nutrition is governed by various genes. Thus, nutrigeneticists claim that individuals may react differently on different diets which imply that nutrition-related disorders can be treated and prevent by modifying diet. This includes identifying those genes that are involved, the differences of these genes in every individual and the applications for health and disease in the population setting. The above definitions give a clear view of the differences between nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutrigenomics looks at the whole response of the genome on particular diet or nutrition. Studies conducted under nutrigenomics use a set of individuals who are largely dissimilar in metabolic responses to particular diet. For example, research related to obesity uses those that are not susceptible to the said condition versus individuals that have obesity or chronic obesity. Using different types of nutritional setup or specific food groups, scientists aim to provide the metabolic pathways that are specific to developing obesity or resistance to such tendency. Another example is diabetes or cardiovascular disease wherein individuals who are found to have high risks on such diseases are examined on their reaction to particular diet or nutrition. Other examples of single gene traits that have large healthcare impacts are those involved in phenylketonuria and galactosemia (Kaput & Rodriquez, 2004). Nutrigenetics, on the other hand, looks on the population response to diet or nutrition. Sequence variations are detection through molecular studies. An example of such molecular tool is the study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These changes in the nucleotide sequence of subjects can lend an explanation on the reaction of particular individuals in relation to the reaction of other individuals. Persons with this changes or SNPs may have crucial substation leading to a health care condition. For example, a cytosine-to-thymidine substitution may cause an increase in the levels of homocysteine in the plasma which increases a personÃ¢â¬â¢s risk of acquiring venous thromboembolic disease and neural tube defects (Subbiah, 2006). Since the two areas of research differ on the part and extent of patient characteristics, therefore the tools and applications largely vary. Nutrigenomics involve various technological implements to ascertain the expression of target genes. Nutrigenomics uses mRNA profiling, protein profiling, metabolite profiling, gene expression tests and other molecular tools. The goal is to determine the presence of a particular enzyme, protein, by-product or metabolite in the cells, tissues or system in the subjects subjected to nutrients being tested (Mariman, 2007). On the other hand, nutrigenetics requires the use of genetic polymorphism tests such as isozyme or nucleotide sequencing. The aim is to detect changes or polymorphisms in a person that is divergent from that of the population. Of important interest is placed in cases of known conditions arising from nucleotide changes such as the one mentioned above involving cytosine-to-thymidine substation which resulted to neural tube defects (Kaput & Rodriguez, 2004; Subbiah, 2006) Obviously, since the target areas of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics are very different from each other, the intervention strategies or treatments should also be divergent. Whereas personally-tailored nutrition and supplements should be given to patients in nutrigenomics the nutrients or supplements to be given to nutrigenetics subjects may be less specific. For example, for those suffering from galactosemia and phenylketonuria, appropriate foods are to be given to avoid or prevent the negative effects of these health conditions (Wallace, 2006; Kaput & Rodriguez, 2007). Nutrigenetics, on the other hand, covers a large portion of the population wherein functional foods and supplements may be made available to the market for people who have the risk, as tested by polymorphism detection, of a disease or health condition such as cardiovascular disease or obesity. Supplements that lower cholesterol that adversely affects certain groups may be taken as prescribed by physicians (Meshkin & Blum, 2007; Subbiah 2006). Current Research in Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics Novel research on folate nutrigenomics research highlighted the importance of this vitamin in the development of humans such that absence can invariably lead to birth defects. Research by Meshkin & Blum (2007) found high association between folate and cardiovascular disease and birth defects reduction. They were also to able to find the genetic influence on folate. Studies such as this led to the review of current policies regarding one-size-fits-all government approach of folate and folic acid supplementation. Chen et al. (2007) found chromium picolinate to have anti-obesity nutrient traits since it affects body composition and reduces weight in humans. They achieved this by genotyping the dopamine D2 receptor gene using standard polymerase chain reaction techniques. Using placebo and different treatment of chromium picolinate, the authors found the significant therapeutic effect of the said nutritional compound in influencing weight loss and reduction in body fat. Their results established the need for DNA testing for this application. Heuvel (2007) conducted a research regarding the effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors. His research included effects of pistachios on lipoproteins and lipids, apolipoproteins, insulin, blood pressure and genetic expression of various genes among other related factors. Results showed that cholesterol reduction diet with pistachios greatly improved the efficiency. In addition, increasing pistachio dose also increased the benefits in decreasing the cardiovascular disease risk on subjects. The said research was achieved by considering the different risk factors in a nutrition genomics experiment. Aside from this study, the author has other proposed experiments including the effects of walnuts on hypercholesterolemia and peanuts on cardiovascular health. Holick (2006) reiterated available and extensive evidence on the importance of vitamin D related to prevention and treatment of rickets, osteoporosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, many common cancers and hypertension. His paper put importance on sun exposure and vitamin D supplements to avoid vitamin D deficiency and avert succumbing to various diseases which apart from the above, includes also psoriasis, multiple sclerosis and cardiovascular disease among others. Researchers from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) are currently in search for answers regarding celiac disease, a disorder wherein a person cannot tolerate a protein in wheat, rye, barley and oats called gluten. Aside from designing diet that would be beneficial for patients suffering from celiac disease, these researchers are also in the hunt for the responsible chemicals in the destruction of the function of the immune system. They are engineering enzymes Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã that can neutralize or destroy immunotoxic peptides produced in affected persons by establishing the environmental and genetic aspects of the disease (NIDDK, 2007). Above advances in the nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics research are indeed fast paced and covers multiple fronts due to the large impact of their results to the food, genetics and healthcare industry. What is very noticeable is the specific focus of each research team on particular areas in individual disease or disorder. Their studies are more focused because the causes already been identified by the involved pathways or gened. This is due to the fact that causes have been pinpointed to the key genes or pathways involved. For example, folate, chromium picolinate and vitamin D in the enumerated researches above have been isolated by workers in these fields. One noticeable pattern, however, is the prominence of nutrigenomics over nutrigenetics. There are more research activities being conducted tackling the effect of nutrition on the genome reaction. More gene expression, metabolic pathways and proteomic analyses are being performed than genetic diversity tests in relation to nutrition. In other words, the approach of nutrition genomics is currently more adapted to personalized diet design since this can be considered a quick fix. However, the trend is not towards the dominant use of nutrigenomics. Instead, there is a need for nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics to be used in combination. This is because nutrigenomics can put solutions on the gene, protein and metabolic level of the disease but those that are suffering from various disorders are not isolated or few. There are large proportions in the population who are affected by diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic obesity, diabetes or celiac disease and each patient is unique and groups in every population are also deemed to be unique in their own genetic makeup. Since nutrigenomics can be used to develop quick-fix diet but not in a population level. This is where nutrigenetics should come in. In summary, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics are two differing fields of modern nutrition and health science with a very large impact on the food and healthcare industry. Nutrigenomics aims to help individuals overcome disorders or disease by identifying key genes, proteins and metabolic pathways and providing appropriate diet or supplements while nutrigenetics tackles the variations in populations related to diet and nutrition dependent disease or disorders. Current researches delve into the specific effects of food and nutrition to the risks and development of known disorders such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, birth defects and many others. Although there have been more work being conducted in nutrigenomics, combination with nutrigenetics is seen to have more beneficial results for patients and other people that are at risk to the said healthcare problems. Works Cited Burton, H. and A. Stewart. (2004). Nutrigenomics. The Nuffield Trust. Available from: www.leatherheadfood.com/nutrigenomics/nutrigenomics07.pdf [18 November 2007] Chen, T., Blum, K., Kaats, G., et al. (2007). Chromium picolinate (CrP) a putative anti-obesity nutrient induces changes in body composition as a function of the Taq1 dopamine D2 receptor polymorphisms in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study. Gene Ther. Mol. Biol. (11) :161-170. Available from www.dnasoa.com/2006/pdf/cpp.pdf [17 November 2007] Holick, M.F. (2006). High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin. Proc. 81(3). Available from Ã [17 November 2007] Kaput, J. and R. Rodriguez. (2004). Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the postgenomic era. Physiol. Genomics (16): 166-177. Available from physiolgenomics.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/16/2/166 [17 November 2007] Kaput, J., Perlina, A., Hatipoglu, B., Bartholomew, A. and Y. Nikolsky. (2007). Nutriggenomics: concepts and applications to pharmacogenomics and clinical medicine. Pharmacogenomics 8 (4). Available from: www.genego.com/PubFTP/PharmacogenomicsKaput.pdf [18 November 2007] Mariman. E..C. (2007). Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Research Institute NUTRIM. Maastricht University Department of Human Biology. Available from: Ã [18 November 2007] Meshkin, B and K. Blum. (2007). Folate nutrigenetics: A convergence of dietary folate metabolism, folic acid supplementation, and folate antagonistÃ pharmacogenetics. Drug Metabolism Letters. (2): 55-60. Available from: www.bentham.org/dml/samples/dml1-1/Blum.pdf [18 November 2007] Muller M, Kersten S. (2003). Nutrigenomics: goals and strategies. Nat Rev Genet. 4(4):315-22. NIDKK. (2007). Celiac disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health. Available from: digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ ddiseases/pubs/celiac/ [18 November 2007] Paturel, A. (2006). Does your diet fit your genes? IDEA Fitness Journal. Available from: www.dswfitness.com/docs/2006IDEANutrition1.pdf [18 November 2007] Subbiah, M.T. (2006). Nutrigenetics and nutraceuticals: the next wave riding on personalized medicine. Translational Research. Available from: www.mdl-labs.com/documents/Nutrigenetics.pdf [18 November 2007] Vanden Heuvel, J.P. (2007). Regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptors: Role in toxicology, chemoprevention and nutrition. Penn State University Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. Available fromÃ [17 November 2007] Wallace, H. (2006). Your diet tailored to your genes: Preventing diseases or misleading marketing? GeneWatch UK. Available from:[19 November 2007] Ã
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Human Rights - Essay Example oper education to empower young males in various social aspects of life, and marginalization of the young population in decision making process in the society. There are various key concepts and theories that form the foundation of human rights, which are all implicated in this issue. This includes theories of human rights based on dignity, wellbeing, or development. They are motivated by the desire to protect and cultivate some quality in life that is filled with dignity, wellbeing, or continuing development. The theory of subsistence is motivated by the desire to preserve life itself (Heard, 1997) There are a high number of young males ending up in prisons out of convictions of violence related cases. Consequently, this translates to a high number of those coming out of the prison systems after serving their jail terms. The concept of human dignity in human rights as suggested by Heard (1997) is paramount. One of the aspects of inherent human dignity is that all human being are equal. However, this is a challenge for the high number of those returning to the society having served part or even most of their lifetime in prison. This is because most of them find themselves alienated and shunned by the rest of the society and find it hard to be integrated back in the society. The fact that most inmates find themselves spending most of their time in the jail also means that they may not have the necessary skills to cater for their well-being because when they come back into the society, they face a great challenge to have normal life. This contrasts the concept of the need for subsistence that bases human rights on the need for existence. The way forward to solving this problem is by creating programs that empower inmates for the life after serving their terms behind bars. Mentorship is also vital to ensure the smooth transition between the two stages and to integrate them to normal life with their families and the society. The high number of drug and substance
Malcolm X - Essay Example agencies were the incarnation of white oppression caused the BPP to believe that civil justice for the black community could be accomplished only through militant actions. It is not possible to comprehend the reason for the formation of the BPP or attempt to explain its violent tendencies without first examining the Civil Rights movement of the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and the specific events leading up to its establishment. The person most credited with bringing the Black Panther Party to prominence was a man called Malcolm X. Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little) did not start the Black Panther Party, but he became a powerful speaker during the Civil Rights Movement, eventually becoming more important to the cause by his death than he was in life as he inspired the movements that took place in the cities of the country. As Martin Luther King Jr. had secured the character of the Southern black, Malcolm had become the messiah of city slums in the North, Midwest and West. The semi-militant organization he headed, the Nation, grew quickly under his leadership. Malcolm was most remembered for his passionate anti-white speeches. This was an idea that was emulated by other pro-autonomy organizations. He was the target of many death threats, one of which, in 1965, was successful. Soon after MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale began forming the Black Panthers (Hollaway, 1998). Malcolm seemed perfectly suited to become the new leader of the Black empowerment movement having been born in 1925 to a half-white mother, Louise Little, and a black father, Earl Little, who headed the local branch of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Perry, 1991). Regardless of what he might have thought of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs in the future, he never forgot the messages of Black pride and self-reliance he learned at his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s knee. Although born in Nebraska, Malcolm grew up primarily in Michigan after his family fled, when he was still an infant, from the terrors
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Propaganda - Essay Example Propaganda is simply the information spread deliberately in order to harm an individual, an institution, a group of people, or even a government. The cultural dictionary defines propaganda as legal and official communications of the government to the public in order to influence them politically. The images associated to propaganda found in this course highlight some of the instances of practice of propaganda. This images include, the image displayed in the third lesson about the young imitating HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s steps and actions, what the Chinese postage stamp implicated in relation to propaganda and finally, the jobs. Looking at how best the practice of propaganda has taken root in the areas of jobs, studied in lesson six and the Chinese postage stamp, studied in lesson five. The post agency of china released stamps with six different designs during the National Tourism Day. The designs showed the picture of the islands of VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s Hoang Sa, which Chinese occupied illegally (Chong, 2002). The post agency also released postcards and envelops with the same pictures. This is propaganda and the china post agency accepted that was a mistake and thus Vietnam has legal claims for the act. It also follows that in the Postal Service Department, china Postal Agency has trivialized the law. Therefore, Vietnam protested against china and demanded for removal of the images of the island. Vietnam claimed that china used propaganda to prosper their tourism industry by posting the images of the islands of Hoang Sa.... It is absurd to think that the people who quit their jobs in this sector got promotions. Therefore, the government continues propaganda in this sector to restore its self-image. Both in china and the United States, the issue about the stamp and the quitting of jobs by the employees in the two countries respectively, are forms of propaganda. These are similar in that both are deceptive. In china, the China Postal Agency deceives the tourists about the ownership of beautiful sites such as the Vietnam Hoang Sa islands published as a design of stamp and posted on envelops and post cards. On the other hand, the government of the United States gives a false statement on the employment sector. The reporters got instructions that instead of reporting that the economy of America is unhealthy, they report the opposite, the economy of America is very healthy (George, 2008). In real sense, the quitting of jobs of citizens is due to the low payments on high wage jobs. These two countries want to achieve good self-images for their governments, illegally. The extent of the propaganda practiced in the two countries differs in the intensity. In China, the postage stamps affected the country in general. The Vietnam had legal allegations towards China Postal Agency; it did not cause many adverse effects to the citizens and the economy of China. On the other hand, the propaganda practiced in the United States causes adverse effects to both the economy of the country and the citizens (Chong, 2002). Citizens quit the jobs because of low payments with high wage jobs, low living standards thus tempering with the economy, they cannot afford school fees, and basic needs of their families and this in turn affects greatly the economy of the country. Another difference
Monday, August 26, 2019
Bioethics - Essay Example We have to listen to all sides in order to get a wider idea of the complexity of this debate. But we also have to be firm in our position once we have reached a sound and factual conclusion. That way we avoid any kind of hypocrisy, and there will not be any double talk in our grasp of the issues at hand. Scientists, lawyers, policymakers, theologians, ethicists, and lay people have something to say about this matter. Many have spoken their minds raising up high their heated arguments. All of them have the right to give their opinions, and we will listen to some of them as we move forward up to our concluding words. We have to keep in mind the fact that at the end God is the centre of the debate. According to the position that we might defend, human freedom of choice becomes an alibi for behaving as we please, or it is the subject of a higher dimension in the eyes of God. When dealing with new reproductive technologies, we should study the bioethical aspects of such new instruments of Science. The mere production of spare embryos as well as their use for scientific research raises some serious bioethical questions that need to be answered. Just from the natural point of view, we have arguments in favor of showing respect for any kind of embryos, even if they are classified as "pre-embryos". C. W. Kischer gives us some useful information about the idea behind the term "conception", and its relationship with the beginning of human life: ""When animal experiments were done in the 18th and 19th centuries, deductive reasoning led to the conclusion that life began at conception; and, finally, this was observed directly by the first in-vitro fertilization procedures with human gametes some 40 years ago" (Kischer 2002). Following this kind of reasoning -not taking God into account, just from the natural point of view- Kischer arrives to this conclusion: "We should respect a microscopic human embryo because at that time it is an integrated whole organism, just as the human is at every moment in time until death. Every human embryo deserves as much respect as you or I because it is formed as a new individual human life within the continuum of life as a manifestation of NATURAL LAW!" (Kischer 2002) (Kischer's own emphasis in capital letters). Kischer speaks about a "continuum of life", and there are three different opposing views on this idea as R. Hoedemaekers explains in detail. He states that there are three fundamental positions with regard to the moral status of a new unborn human life: the first one is "continuity in development", and this view gives personhood to the embryo from the very beginning, that is, from conception, with the same degree of value and dignity as a human being; the second one is "discontinuity in development", and this position treats the embryos from two different angles, first as a property at conception, and much later as a person, depending on the age in development; and the third one is "incremental or gradual development" that assigns a lesser to a greater degree in personhood to the
Sunday, August 25, 2019
EMBA 560 Executive position week 3 journal 3 - Essay Example When my hopes have been pinned on the outcome of an event that does not turn out as I had expected, I turn to self-denial and refuse to give up my original position. I hope against hope that things will eventually turn out how I expected them to, only for those hopes to be dashed by the throw of the dice. When my expectations go unfulfilled, it takes some time Ã¢â¬â in fact, a lot of time Ã¢â¬â for me to overcome my disbelief and extreme disappointment. Sometimes I take it as a personal affront that luck did not turn may way; there are just some changes that are too difficult to accept. I also give myself a thumbs down, though to a lesser degree, to behaviours 1 (separating strategy from tactics) and 3 (feeling threatened by obstacles rather than challenged). (2) I deserve a thumbs sideways in my ability to Ã¢â¬Å"see patterns and make logical connections or resolve contradictions and anticipate their consequences.Ã¢â¬ There are times when these happen and I am able to respond in an appropriate and timely manner, in which case I give myself a nice on the back and say job well done. There are also times when I completely miss the boat, and depending on my personal emotional investment in the occurrence, I either: act in the manner I described in attribute (1) above in the important matters and for which I gave myself a thumbs down; or merely shrug my shoulders and say, better luck next time, if the issue was not that important. I give myself thumbs sideways to all the other behaviours not classified as thumbs-up or thumbs-down for me. (3) I can give myself a resounding thumbs-up for being able to Ã¢â¬Å"prioritize seemingly conflicting goalsÃ¢â¬ ¦to zero in on the critical few and put aside the trivial many when allocating time and resources.Ã¢â¬ I pride myself in quickly identifying what is important and devoting for the moment my full attention and abilities on the quick resolution of the most important task at hand. I figure out it is best to get those
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Management - Psychological Contract - Essay Example Most employers try to retain employees is through making promises. However, most of the promises made may not be achievable. This process through which organizations makes promises is termed as psychological contract (O'neill, Krivokapic-Skoko & Dowell, 2010). The case provided is a clear example of the psychological contract. Failing to meet the promises lead to a phenomenon that is called psychological contract breach. Psychological contract breach is a significant problem mainly because it fosters a belief within employees that the organization does not support them. It is a main obstacle facing the employees in most of the organization today (Chen, Tsui & Zhong, 2008). Psychological contracts are those perceptions that employees have on employer related to the training, promotion, or any other promise not explicitly recognized in formal contract. These forms of psychological contract are normally used by most of the employers to entice the employees into accepting the job being o ffered by the employer. Principally, under normal situation, the employer-employee relationship is expected that the employer offer compensation to the employee for the performance of the job duties. Chen, Tsui & Zhong (2008) describes the psychological contracts as mental templates that sum up the perceived promises that employees believe that the organization has made to them in exchange for their efforts on behalf of the organization. As mentioned above, psychological contracts are beneficial and useful to both the employer and employee. For the employer, psychological contract constitute the best way in which an organization can advertise for the job vacancies. Psychological contracts are used to attract the attention of the applicant and make them loyal to the company. For the side of employee, psychological contract becomes beneficial only if they are fulfilled (Tyagi & Agrawal, 2010). Psychological contract breach is a term used to describe the inability of the employer to fu lfill the psychological contracts or the promises that he or she made during the recruitment period. The case study is a typical example of psychological contract breach. This is because the employer did not fulfill what he had promised the recruited. Just as the case depicts, psychological contract breach results in reduced performance, negative attitudes and more importantly, withdrawal behaviors. The problems associated with the psychological contract breach pose particular concern for organizations (Bordia, Restubog & Tang, 2008). Fundamentally, most organization tries their best to fulfill their psychological contracts but a number of factors limit them from meeting this objective. These factors include downsizing, outsourcing and rapid change. Consequently, avoiding psychological contract breach is a difficult task for the current organizations. The case presented in the case study implies that employees had higher expectation form the company. However, as they starts working in the company, they realized that they are not getting what they expected. They found out that the kind of jobs or duties they are given are below their standards. They end up becoming psychologically tortured. They also loss confidence in the organization. As they plan to leave their job, they feel that they may not get another job. This means that these employees need to be advised on what they should
Friday, August 23, 2019
Managing Human Resources - Essay Example As a work motivational approach, Cummings and Worley (2009, p. 434) explained that rewards can either be intrinsic or extrinsic by nature. In line with this, intrinsic rewards include the use of sincere acknowledgement for a good performance whereas extrinsic rewards can be in a form of increased salary, stock options, work promotion, or bonus given to employees (Cummings and Worley, 2009, p. 434). As compared to the use of extrinsic rewards, it is easier to implement intrinsic rewards because HR managers can easily make it a habit to acknowledge the effort of each employee in making the organizational goal attainable rather than requesting the business owners and board of directors to increase the available fund which can be use to reward employees for any improvements in their work performance (Shamir et al., 1993). According to Pfeffer (1998, p. 110), HR managers often ask the question Ã¢â¬Å"how much to pay employeesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"how much compensation package should be includ ed in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reward systemÃ¢â¬ in order to increase the work performance of each employee. Pertaining to the importance of developing and implementing effective pay and reward system, this report will focus on discussing how internal factors (i.e. organizational vision and mission, organizational structure, organizational culture, business objectives and business strategies) and external factors (i.e. competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ pay and reward system that is heavily influenced by economic pressures, the current labour market condition, government implemented labour policies, legal issues concerning the basic labour requirements, and the global labour environment) could shape the organizational approaches when designing a business organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s pay and reward system (Heneman, Fisher and Dixon, 2001; Zingheim, Ledford and Schuster, 1996). Based on the research findings, the researcher will analyze how each factor is link with the other identified factors when designin g pay and reward systems. Internal Factors that Shapes the Organizational Approaches when Designing Pay and Reward Systems Several research studies revealed that internal factors that could significantly affect the shaping of organizational approaches when designing pay and reward systems includes the organizational vision and mission, organizational structure, organizational culture, business objectives and business strategies (Heneman, Fisher and Dixon, 2001; Zingheim, Ledford and Schuster, 1996). Depending on organizational vision and mission, organizational structure, business objectives and business strategies, a business organization can develop a culture with regards to its accepted and widely practiced pay and rewards system. Communicating the organizational vision to the rest of the employees serves as a guide in the development and implementation of strategic planning. In line with this, a shared vision can be use as a guide in developing the kind of reward system which co uld effectively motivate each employee to improve their work performance (Worldatwork, 2007, p. 39). Upon analyzing the significance of organizational vision and mission in the designing of pay and rewards systems, it is necessary for HR managers to be familiar with the organizational
Thursday, August 22, 2019
New York Times Annotated Bibliography Essay 6 September, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"U. S. Jobless Rate Rises Past 6%, Highest Since Ã¢â¬Ë03. Ã¢â¬ Uchitelle, Louis. New York Times. This article informs about the fact that the unemployment rate reached its highest level since 2003; causing workers to worry about the fact that many of them will be jobless and also centers on the high unemployment rate became one of the centers of the presidential debates. This article relates to our course since it suggests how unemployment can affect the economy as a whole and how inflation impacts the job status of a society. The article is also relevant to our course because it also gives the opinion of both McCain and Obama on the unemployment escalation and gives a glimpse of what both candidates would do about it. 9 September, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Who Else Can Pile on for a Federal Rescue? Ã¢â¬ Schwartz, Nelson D. New York Times. This article informs about the federal rescue of the companies Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The article also informs about the automakers worries and the bailout plans that Washington D. C. has proposed to help automakers out of the same financial crunch. It further opens a debate of whether or not we should allow companies to fail or if we should bail them out as has been proposed by some. This article relates to our course since it suggests that in our market economy we should be realistic enough to realize that at times companies do fail and that economic bail out plans are good as a quick fix but they fall short in the long term. Often we like to think that big business is above the common failings, but as we see from the recent events, big business is no longer an elite thing. It is just what it has always been, businesses that have been built over years with the hard work of the owners. Big business is no different then the small company and in this tough economic times this is spelled out clearly. 13 September, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Off the Charts: The Return of the Misery Index. Ã¢â¬ Norris, Floyd. New York Times. This article informs about the Ã¢â¬Å"misery indexÃ¢â¬ . The misery index is the sum of the inflation rate and the unemployment rate over the preceding 12 months. The misery rate hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been seen since the Carter administration, but yet in this year both rates have seen to be rising. The article also looks at how the misery index has risen in the past during the past presidencies. This article relates to our course since it suggests unless something is done, we are likely to not see an improvement in either the inflation rate or the unemployment rate. The article also is relevant to the course since it suggests by looking at this index we can have a very good gauge of how our economic atmosphere will fare in the coming months. 15 September, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"A Video Contest To Illustrate Democracy. Ã¢â¬ Cohen, Noam. New York Times. This article informs about the International Democracy Day and the video contest that was created in conjunction with this day. The video contest offers students and people around the world the chance to say what democracy means to them. This article relates to our course since it talks about the importance of democracy on the global and business stage. Democracy is not just an American concept but one that transcends our country. The article also talks about the companies that are helping with this contest. The companies include NBC and YouTube. The partnership between these companies act as a hallmark for all of us because they are showing that everyone from all walks of life cars about democracy and through democracy we can work together. 18 September, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"As Fears Grow, Wall St. Titans See Shares Fall. Ã¢â¬ White, Ben and Dash, Eric. Contributed reporting by Sorokin, Andrew R. New York Times. This article informs about the failing of Wall Street titans like Morgan Stanely and Goldman Sachs. The fear that other company could face the same fate as these giants has spread through Wall Street in the last few months. It is estimated that globally there are losses in the 100 billions as far as stocks are concerned. This article relates to our course since it suggests that the failure of investment firms such as Morgan Stanley affects not only the market here in the United States but also has an impact on the global market as well. We tend to forget when we think about our own economic bad times, that other countries the world over are also experiencing the same economic crunch. 23 September, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"With Politics in the Air, a Freedom Free-for-All Comes to Town. Ã¢â¬ Cotter, Holland. New York Times. This article informs about an art exhibit that was going on at the Park Avenue Armory during the middle of September. This exhibit is a tongue-in-cheek look at the political system and demonstrates the true meaning of democracy: the right for people to express their views, no matter how differently they do it, and to show other people a different side to every subject. The art exhibit used speeches, music and silly hats to give people another side to the political elections. This article relates to our course since it suggests that elections and democracy can be talked about in a completely non-partisan, non-electoral but still intensely political way. People who went to the exhibit also got a first hand look at how the freedoms of our country allow for people to express themselves in the ways that they want to, which is what democracy is all about. 25 September, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Criticizing Capitalism From the Pulpit. Ã¢â¬ Pfanner, Eric. New York Times. This article informs about how even religious leaders have joined the crusade in criticizing AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s rogue style of capitalism. World religious leaders have taken the fall of Wall Street icons and used that as a means for criticizing the cowboy style of economics that America has been globally portrayed to utilize. This article relates to our course since it suggests that even a pulpit is a place where economics and business standards can be discussed from. Religion is as far from economics as one can get yet this article clearly shows that the global economics pictures is something that is on everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, no matter where they live or what they do. We tend to forget that all things are connected and this article clearly shows us that everything in life is connected and has a more far reaching affect then we first may think. 1 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Brother, Can You Spare a Loan? Ã¢â¬ Tarquino, J. Alex. New York Times. This article informs about the credit crisis that the small business and individuals have faced in the last few months. The article also talks about the speculation of many in the business world that the escalation towards the credit crisis will only get worse and will eventually be the death of the small businessman. The article ends by saying that the saddest day for America will be the day that small business does die in this country. This article relates to our course since it suggests that in these frightening economic times we could see the end of the small business. American was founded on the ideals that anyone could make their dreams come true and if the credit crisis totally obliterates the small business it will be a sad day indeed for America. 3 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"As Economy Weakens, Federal Reserve Officials Consider Lowering Rates. Ã¢â¬ Andrews, Edmund L. New York Times. This article informs about the Federal ReserveÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings on the Bush administrations economic bailout plan. According to the Fed, even if the bail out is approved it is too little to late and will do hardly nothing to stop the economic slow down from happening. The reason, in the FedÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, is that financial institutions are fearful of lending out cash and making bad investments. This article relates to our course since it suggests that the economic slow down affects everyone in our economic atmosphere. It also allows people to see how the Federal Reserve is interpreting what is happening so that the average citizen can gauge what they should do in this economic turmoil. 4 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"End of an Era on Wall Street: Goodbye to All That. Ã¢â¬ Arango, Tim and Creswell, Julie. New York Times. This article informs about theft of a bronze bust of a saloon owner on Hanover Street. The saloon was a frequent favorite of Wall Street execs and the theft happened just as Wall Street was swept up in the financial whirlwind of economic troubles. This article isnÃ¢â¬â¢t about a theft of a statue, but more indicative of the times that we are living in when someone would take a well loved art piece, bound with tradition, to perhaps make a quick buck. This article relates to our course since it suggests that the traditions and ideals of Wall Street are slowly falling by the wayside as the economic crunch gets tighter. Wall Street has always been steeped in economic traction, but the theft of this well loved art piece shows that even tradition can be trampled in the hopes of making some money to pay your bills. 12 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Finance Students Keep Their Job Hopes Alive. Ã¢â¬ Leland, John. Contributed Reporting by Fairbanks, Amanda M. ; Koppel, Niko; and Zezima, Katie. New York Times. This article informs about the current job outlook for those who are thinking of making finance a possible career. The article talks about how for many business majors law school seems a viable option now more then ever. Others look at the current economic situation as just something they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t worry about since they have already figured that they will change jobs five or six times in their careers. This article relates to our course since as people who have made business our major (or for those who this is a first class and they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t made up their minds on this as a major) it is important to take a look at the job outlook that we will have to look forward to in the coming years. 14 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Commodity Prices Tumble. Ã¢â¬ Krauss, Clifford. New York Times. This article informs about how the global financial panic and economic slowdown has lead an end to the commodity bull market that we have seen in the last seven years. This ending of the commodity market has sent prices on the raw ingredients (such as oil) of the world economy tumbling to an all time low. This article relates to our course since it suggests that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t just have economic worries here in the United States, but that other countries are also worried about the current state of the economic situation. The United States is part of a broader wide sweeping world economy and the economic slowdown is not just affecting things here at home but also globally. This article clearly gives the reader a better idea of how the United States fits into the broader global economy. In our own economic hard times we tend forget that we are not alone, but are facing the same issues that other countries are. 19 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"The Guys From Ã¢â¬ËGovernment SachsÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ Creswell, Julie and White, Ben. New York Times. This article informs about how Treasury secretary Paulson used his former firm of Goldman Sachs as a means to investigate what was happening on Wall Street prior to the financial difficulties. It also raises eyebrows and speculates about the amount of participation Goldman Sachs is being perceived to have in the Treasury Department. This article relates to our course since it speculates on corporate interference in a governmental department. In the world economics, such speculation is something that we have to watch carefully so that the economic system is not stained in anyway. When companies interfere with the running of government departments, it makes all actions that have sprung out of that suspect. By bringing Goldman Sachs into the Treasury, Paulson has created a suspicious circumstance that we all should learn from. That above all else is what should be learned from this article. 22 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"China, an Engine of Growth, Faces a Global Slump. Ã¢â¬ Yardley, Jim and Bradsher, Keith. New York Times. This article informs about the slump in economic level of China. Always seen as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s workshop, the threat of global recession has many wondering if the prevailing Communist Party has the wherewithal to stop the further economic decline of China. The article makes a nice point in saying that China is the world economy gauge for how the economic slowdown will eventually affect everyone. This article relates to our course since it informs on how one country is dealing with the long reaching effects of the global financial slowdown. It is interesting to see how one country is going to deal with this global issue because then other countries have a blueprint by which to also take action. 28 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Denmark Is Rethinking ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Spurning of the Euro. Ã¢â¬ Dougherty, Carter. New York Times. This article informs about looking closely at one country and the effect that the global financial situation has on it. Denmark, a country formerly against the euro, now is rethinking things because of the ice cold credit situations of the banks of Denmark. As it stands now a bare majority of Danes do back the adoption of the Euro. This article relates to our course since it suggests that countries that were previously opposed to a financial idea may now have to rethink their opposition as the global economy faces this slowdown. Every country has to figure out ways in which they are going to deal with the global financial crunch. It also relates to this class because it shows us how as a global economy we are all in the same boat. 29 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Paterson Sees a Budget Gap $47 Billion. Ã¢â¬ Hakim, Danny and Peters, Jeremy W. New York Times. This article informs about the deficit that the state of New York is facing and the loss of job in the 100,000 in the private sector. The article also suggests the ways in which the state plans on fixing the deficit. Deficits are something that we as a society have to watch carefully especially in these economically unstable times. This article relates to our course since it suggests that everyone, from the state level to the private sector, is affected by the financial crunch that is being seen globally as well as here at home. We tend to forget when we look at big businesses that the private sector is just as affected and this article gives us a glimpse into this fact. We all tend to forget that big business is run by people and people do make mistakes. 31 October, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Economy Shrinks With Consumers Leading the Way. Ã¢â¬ Goodman, Peter S. ; contributing reporting by Norris, Floyd and Zeleny, Jeff. New York Times. This article informs about how the drop in the economy is a bad precursor to the coming holiday seasons. Consumers who are being laid off and having their hours cut have less to spend this holiday season and this is being reflected in the economy more then ever. This especially hits home as we think about the upcoming holiday season, a time when consumer spending is at a high point. This article relates to our course since it shows how the economy is really a circular relationship. The consumer has to work to make money, but no job or less working hours leads to zero money to be spent. This article is important because everything in the world of business and life are interconnected and this article is a very good example of that idea. 4 November, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Wall StreetÃ¢â¬â¢s Extreme Sport: In Modeling Risk, the Human Factor Was Left Out. Ã¢â¬ Lohr, Steve. New York Times. This article informs about how the risk models that have been used on Wall Street for years have failed due to not being applied, managed, or even understood. Technology that has been made use of on Wall Street has gotten ahead of our ability to act responsible. Often, we forget that technology is only as good as the people that run it, and as such has the capacity for many risks. This article relates to our course since it suggests that risk factors that are associated with the economic downturn come from every sector and that they have a more far reaching concern then we first thought. Risk factors are important to look at since by seeing where the risks have been in a situation, we can hopefully in the future prevent the same economic situation from happening again. 8 November, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Colleges Rich and Poor Strain to Respond in Tough Times. Ã¢â¬ Lewin, Tamar. New York Times. This article informs about how colleges are more then ever struggling to meet the financial needs of students. In the past, the majority of college students were able to fund their education through scholarships that the colleges and universities offered. In this tough economic time, that no longer looks like it will be an option. Students will have to rely more on grants (which may be just as limited), loans and paying out of pocket. This article relates to our course since it hits close to home about how the financial crisis that we are seeing everywhere even affects those of us in college. Previously, being in college meant all you had to do was study hard for finals. Now, though, even college students are feeling the economic burden. 9 November, 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"Remember That Capitalism is More Then a Spectator Sport. Ã¢â¬ Blinder, Alan S. New York Times. This article informs about the daunting tasks that are ahead for president elect Obama. Among these tasks are to restore a sense of fairness in and faith to our economic system. This article relates to our course since it gives a nice overview of how President-elect Obama needs to go about restoring the faith of he American people in the tattered economic system that has failed us time and again. In watching the elections, President-elect Obama made a lot of nice speeches about what he plans to do, and this article gives us a first glimpse of rather he will be successful or not. I think it is also a nice all inclusive article that sums up the ideals that we have been studying in this course.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Boston Strangler killings Essay Between 1962 and 1964, thirteen women were sexually assaulted and murdered in the city of Boston. This series of murders was called the Boston Strangler murders. Though most of the victims were older women, a few were in their early twenties, and one young woman was in her late teens. All of the victims were strangled, usually with a personal item the woman owned, such as tights or stockings. The Boston Strangler would gain access to his victims by posing as an official needing to perform a service in the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s homes. In 1964, Albert de Salvo confessed to having committed the crimes (Chitolie, 1997). Because the Boston Strangler killings involved a repetitive pattern, which always involved specific behaviors, social learning theory is most useful in explaining this case. According to social learning theory, an individual learns by observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others (Kearsley, 2007). People learn societal norms and appropriate, healthy behaviors by modeling others. After one becomes aware of a behavior by observing it, he will usually apply the behavior in future situations, reflecting upon past outcomes that occurred when the behavior was originally observed. The Boston Strangler observed the reactions of his earlier victims and based his approach to future murders on the outcomes of his prior crimes. For example, he knew that by dressing as a serviceman, de SalvoÃ¢â¬â¢s victims would respond by trusting de Salvo and allowing him to enter their houses. Consequently, de Salvo used this tactic repeatedly. A more general example of how learned behaviors may influence future practices is evident in the treatment of animals. Many children go through a stage in which they innocently harm insects or small animals (i. e. by trapping them and keeping them in jars, etc. ). In most cases, a parent or other adult intervenes, and the child learns to respect animals. As a result, the child does not have a desire to cause the animal pain. There are some cases, however, in which the child never learns empathy for animals and the pattern of torture intensifies. Based on prior experiences (i. e. causing pain in animals as a form of enjoyment, and not having an adult stop the behavior), a child may continue the undesirable practice. Sometimes, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s violent tendencies toward living things may escalate so much that it is later transferred to human beings when the child becomes an adult. As a child, Albert de Salvo trapped cats and dogs and shot them with arrows. It may be argued that de Salvo never learned appropriate behavior in dealing with living things, and as a result, de SalvoÃ¢â¬â¢s practice of trapping animals, rendering them helpless, and killing them progressed to trapping and torturing the women he murdered during his adulthood. The childhood practice of continued animal cruelty can be observed among a number of other infamous serial killers as well (Finch, 1992). In the context of social learning theory, the Boston StranglerÃ¢â¬â¢s killings perhaps occurred because the individual who committed these crimes lacked proper role models to teach him the rules and norms of society. It appears that this individual was never effectively discouraged from harming living organisms, and it is even possible that he may have witnessed violent acts (perhaps the violent acts of men against women) during his early years of development. Nevertheless, when examining the killings, from the general events that took place to the minor details, there appears to be an obvious pattern of repetitive learned violent behavior. Bibliography Chitolie, Raymond. Serial KillersÃ¢â¬âCase Files [The Boston Strangler]. 1997. Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://hosted. ray. easynet. co. uk/serial_killers/boston. html Finch, Patty A. Abuse. 1992. Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://www. vospca. org/archive/abuse. html Kearsley, Gregg. Theories. 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://tip. psychology. org/bandura. html
A Review of Recessive Genetic Diseases in Cattle Huan Yu Introduction Cattle are susceptible to a wide range of genetic diseases. The majority of inherited genetic diseases recognized in cattle are autosomal recessive, mainly due to the practice of Ã¢â¬Å"line-breedingÃ¢â¬ . The defective calf receives error gene inherited from both its sire and dam. However, if the inherited mutant gene comes from only one parent, such individual usually turns out to be a carrier of the disease without any symptoms (Patel, 2010). Genetic abnormalities contribute to poor performance and structural unsoundness to semi-lethal and lethal diseases. Since most genetic diseases are breed-specific, artificial insemination a widely used technique for cattle breeding may lead to high levels of inbreeding and an inevitable increase in the prevalence of recessive defects. Hence, it is imperative to increase the awareness of genetic diseases in cattle among animal breeders and farmers. This will stimulate strategies to reduce the economic loss due to such genetic diseases in cattle. More so, genetic tests for DNA markers such as Citrullinemia and BLAD may be utilised to identify animals with inherited defects at a very young age based on PCR-RFLP marker (Gholap, Kale and Sirothia, 2014). Also, there is need for cooperation among government agencies, veterinarians, animal scientists and farmers in the control of genetic defects among commercial cattle populations, by formulating and adopting good monitoring and control measures. This paper reviews some recessive genetic diseases in cattle with particular reference to its definition, genetic cause (DNA mutation) and the clinical symptoms. Furthermore, it also discuss some best practice to control the genetic disease in breeding population of dairy and beef cattle breeds. Recessive Genetic Diseases 1. Double Muscling or Muscular Hypertrophy Animals are described a Ã¢â¬Å"double-muscledÃ¢â¬ (see Fig. 1) when they have a myostatin mutation. Double muscle gene is caused by the mutation of the muscle growth inhibition gene located on the second chromosomes. It is a negative regulatory factor of the skeletal muscle growth, a member of the TGF-Ã ² supergene family (Fiems, 2012). McPherron et al., (1997) noticed that these diseases are mainly found in Belgian Blue and Piedmontese cattle, which usually have an incredibly muscular look even if they do not exercise. Although, DM animals are touted to be beneficial to farmers, meat industry and consumers due to their valuable carcasses, however, they are more susceptible to respiratory disease, stress and dystocia, resulting in a lower robustness. Fig. 1. A fullblood Belgian Blue bull showing the double muscling phenotype. Adapted from McPherron et al., 1997. 2. Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Calf) Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (see Fig. 2) is a recessive neurological disease most commonly reported in Brown Swiss pure and crossbred cattle since the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s in Northern America and Europe. It is usually caused by mutations in the EZH2 gene and some rare reported cases have implicated mutations in the NSD1 gene (Gholap, Kale and Sirothia, 2014). Clinical signs of the disease includes hind limb weakness, ataxia, and dysmetria appear in homozygous individuals around 6 months of age with a progressive weakness extending over 2-3 years. The occurrence of this disease can be determined by mapping Bos Taurus autosome (BTA) 4:46-56 Mb and a commercially available diagnostic test marker for 6 microsatellite (MS) (McClure et al., 2013). Fig. 2. Eighteen-month-old Brown heifer affected by Ã¢â¬Å"Weaver syndromeÃ¢â¬ Adapted from Gentile and Testoni, 2006. 3. Arachomelia Arachnomelia is a monogenic recessive disease in cattle characterized by skeletal abnormalities and usually found in Brown, German Fleckvieh-Simmental cattle (DrÃ ¶gemÃ ¼ller et al., 2010). The causative mutation is due to SUOX gene (BTA5) encoding molybdohemoprotein sulphite oxidase and deleting c.1224-1225delC (Gholap, Kale and Sirothia, 2014). The affected cattle presents with fragile, thinner and longer legs in combination with stiffened joints. The fetlock joints are deformed and the skull malformations are characterized by shortened lower jaw, pointer head (see Fig. 3). Fig. 3. Phenotype of bovine arachnomelia in Brown Swiss cattle Adapted from DrÃ ¶gemÃ ¼ller et al., 2010. 4. Neuropathic Hydroceohalus (Water Head) Hydrocephaly is an abnormal increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranial cavity. It is accompanied by expansion of the cerebral ventricles, enlargement of the skull and especially the forehead, and atrophy of the brain which may result in stillborn or dummy calves (Arsdall, 2011). One mutation causing NH in the descendents of GAR Precision 1680, and a popular AI sire in high marbling Angus bloodlines. This disease most commonly found in Angus and Angus infused beef cattle. Affected calves are born dead with an extremely large cranium with little or no brain material or spinal cord (see Fig. 4). It is probable that a large percentage of mortalities relating to NH occur through embryonic or fetal loss during gestation, which causes the defect to go misdiagnosed or unnoticed. Fig. 4. Deformity in a stillborn calf due to neuropathic hydrocephalus Adapted from Vetbook.org, 2013. 5. Chondrodysplasia (Dwarfism) Bovine chondrodysplastic dwarfism (BCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder with the phenotype of short limbs, joint abnormality, and ateliosis (see Fig. 5). This disorder mainly results from the mutation of a single nucleotide substitution leading to an activation of a cryptic splicing donor site and a one-base deletion resulting in a frameshift mutation (Takeda et al., 2002). Clinical signs of the disease may present with wide variation, but the main feature is reduced length of bones with an endochondral growth pattern. The Dexter cattle that inherit two copies of the ACAN mutation will abort during the third trimester, while the heterozygous individuals will show the desired miniature cattle phenotype (Arsdall, 2011). Fig. 5. An example of the degree of dwarfism expressed in carriers Adapted from Davidson, 2008. Strategies for Controlling Genetic Defects Most genetic diseases are breed-specific that can cause the huge economic losses due to poor animal performance; structural unsoundness reduces the production and reproductive potential of the animal. Consequently, it is necessary to determine the cause of inherited defects. Moreover, controlling genetic diseases, ethical and legal considerations are also important methods to minimise the genetic diseases in breeding population of dairy and beef cattle breeds. Firstly, farmers should have good breeding records for each animal which include their sire and dam, date of breeding, the date of breeding, abnormality descriptions and photos or videos and causes of death, if the farmers cannot find the reason of death, they should ask help from veterinarians or state diagnostic laboratory (Jane and Trent, 2010). Some of the recessive genetic diseases are somewhat difficult to recognise because mutant gene inherited from only one parent is usually without symptoms. Therefore, good records by breeders will help to know the causes of death in controlling diseases and good diagnosis for the congenital defects. Secondly, animals that carry a defective gene should be prevented from passing it on to their offsprings by culling. DNA testing is currently available for the genetic diseases. The calf should be made to undergo blood typing within one-month of age to allow early diagnosis of underlying disease. Importantly, Bulls or semen should be purchased from reputable breeders, produced by parents who are not known to carry undesirable genes (Schalles, Leipold and McCraw, 1914). Although, the DNA testing is a huge financial burden as well as time consuming, however, a good diagnosis from one dead calf can save many others. In the last decade, the development of DNA tests for detecting BLAND and Citrullinemia has been effective in breeding population (Gholap, Kale and Sirothia, 2014). Furthermore, seed stock producers have an obligation to be honest with the customers and to ensure that their customers understand the consequences of using offspring from know carriers. Otherwise, the breederÃ¢â¬â¢s reputations will be at stake, as well as reflect negatively on the entire breed. Conclusion Genetic diseases in dairy and beef cattle affect the economics of animal breeders and farmers, and it is a long way to developing DNA tests for the diagnosis of most diseases to check the spread of undesirable genes effectively. Farmers should cooperate with the breed association, extension and university personnel and veterinarians to eliminate and avoid these problems. The government also need to raise public awareness of genetic diseases in breeding population of dairy and beef cattle breeds via social media, advertisements and journals. References Arsdall, D. V. (2011). Neuropathic Hydrocephalus (NH) Water Head [online] Available from: http://calfology.com/library/wiki/neuropathic-hydrocephalus-nh-quotwater-headquot [Accessed 12 May 2015] Arsdall, D. V. (2011). Dwarfism (Condrodysplasia) [online] Available from: http://calfology.com/library/wiki/dwarfism-condrodysplasia [Accessed 12 May 2015] Carol Davidson (2008). American Dexter Cattle Association [online] Available from: http://www.dextercattle.org/adca/adca_article_chondrodysplasia.html [Accessed 13 May 2015] DrÃ ¶gemÃ ¼ller, C., Tetens, J., Sigurdsson, S., Gentile, A., Testoni, S., Lindblad-Toh, K. and Leeb, T. (2010). Ã¢â¬ËIdentification of the Bovine Arachnomelia Mutation by Massively Parallel Sequencing Implicates Sulfite Oxidase (SUOX) in Bone DevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢, PLoS Genetics, vol.6, no.8, pp.e1001079 Fiems, L. (2012). Ã¢â¬ËDouble Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and MeatÃ¢â¬â¢, Animals, vol.2, no.4, pp.472-506 Gholap, P. N., Kale. D. S. and Sirothia. A. R. (2014). Ã¢â¬ËGenetic Diseases in Cattle: a ReviewÃ¢â¬â¢, Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, pp.24-33 Gentile, A., Testoni, S. (2006). Ã¢â¬ËInherited disorders of cattle: a selected reviewÃ¢â¬â¢, Slov vet Res, vol.43, no.1, pp.17-29 Jane A. Parish and Trent Smith (2010) Managing Genetic Defects in Beef Cattle Herds [online] Available from: http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2622.pdf [Accessed 13 May 2015] McClure, M., Kim, E., Bickhart, D., Null, D., Cooper, T., Cole, J., Wiggans, G., Ajmone-Marsan, P., Colli, L., Santus, E., Liu, G., Schroeder, S., Matukumalli, L., Van Tassell, C. and Sonstegard, T. (2013) Ã¢â¬ËFine Mapping for Weaver Syndrome in Brown Swiss Cattle and the Identification of 41 Concordant Mutations across NRCAM, PNPLA8 and CTTNBP2Ã¢â¬â¢, PLoS ONE, vol.8, no.3, pp.e59251 Patel, R. K. (2010). Ã¢â¬ËAutosomal Recessive Genetic Disorders of Cattle Breeds Worldwide-A ReviewÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Livestock Biodiversity, vol.2, no.1, pp.35-41 Schalles, R. R., Leipold, H. W., McCraw, R. L. (1914). Congenital Defects in cattle [online] Available from: http://www.iowabeefcenter.org/Beef%20Cattle%20Handbook/Congenital_Defects_Cattle.pdf [Accessed 13 May 2015] Vetbook.org (2013) Neuropathic hydrocephalus Ã¢â¬â Cow [online] Available from: http://vetbook.org/wiki/cow/index.php/Neuropathic_hydrocephalus [Accessed 13 May 2015]
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Qualms of Communication "He never talks to me!" That phrase is the most common complaint that women have about men. The communication process between men and women has long been an interest for many people. The way we speak and why we speak that way have prompted diverse opinions from various authors over the years. Deborah Tannen is one such author. Tannen, who has a doctorate in linguistics, is a professor at Georgetown University. She has been studying the way people communicate and the problems they have communicating with each other for many years. Her studies inspired her to write several books on the subject. The excerpt Ã¢â¬Å"Put Down That Paper and Talk To Me,Ã¢â¬ which appears in the textbook Writing the World, was taken from her best-seller You Just DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation, written in 1991. Deborah Tannen believes men and women talk differently because they are raised in two different conversational cultures and that problems arise because of conversational styl e. She thinks that boys are taught to speak like men and girls taught to talk like women. In the essay Tannen addresses many of the misgivings of communication, based upon her numerous studies, that she believes proves men and women really are taught to talk a certain way. Deborah Tannen has been studying how people communicate with each other and she believes it starts at a very early age. Starting when we are very young, we communicate very differently. On a television show titled Ã¢â¬Å"She Said, He Said,Ã¢â¬ Tannen showed some video recording on a study of hers that had two same-sex children enter a room and sit and talk to each other. She performed this same study on varying ages of children from 5 to 16 and in every case the results were the same. She found that the boys would sit side by side and would speak almost distractedly, while looking about the room. The girls would enter the room, place their chairs facing each other, and would speak looking directly at each other. To Tannen, this study showed how males do not talk with much intimacy. Their relationships are held together by performing activities in a group, such as sports or politics. She believes men speak when they feel a need to impress or if their social status is in question. T he females however, spoke with much more closeness. Tannen says, Ã¢â¬Å"For females, talk is the glue that holds their relationships... ...them control power, wealth, and social resources because men think that women do not want them. Another one of TannenÃ¢â¬â¢s critics, Senta Troemel-Ploetz, accuses Deborah Tannen of ignoring the possibility that men and women communicate differently because of differences of power. Troemel-Ploetz contends that the problem goes beyond conversational style. She believes that Tannen completely misses the power-struggle between the two sexes in the ways that they speak. She believes that society is giving men too much power in speaking and essentially how people are leading their lives. TannenÃ¢â¬â¢s advice on how to solve communication problems is mainly just to understand the differences in the way we speak. Tannen says, Ã¢â¬Å"Many men honestly do not know what women want, and women honestly do not know why men find what they want so hard to comprehend and deliver.Ã¢â¬ Men and women are different so naturally we will behave and talk differently. Since we start communicating at a young age Tannen believes we are raised to speak in separate worlds by a combination of cultural and biological influences, and if we can better understand our differences, we can solve many of the qualms of communication.